Staff directory

Alfredo De la Escosura Muniz

Senior Postdoctoral Researcher
Nanobioelectronics and Biosensors



  • Biosensors for plant pathogen detection

    Khater M., de la Escosura-Muñiz A., Merkoçi A. Biosensors and Bioelectronics; 93: 72 - 86. 2017. 10.1016/j.bios.2016.09.091.

    Infectious plant diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, viroids, phytoplasma and nematodes. Worldwide, plant pathogen infections are among main factors limiting crop productivity and increasing economic losses. Plant pathogen detection is important as first step to manage a plant disease in greenhouses, field conditions and at the country boarders. Current immunological techniques used to detect pathogens in plant include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and direct tissue blot immunoassays (DTBIA). DNA-based techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real time PCR (RT-PCR) and dot blot hybridization have also been proposed for pathogen identification and detection. However these methodologies are time-consuming and require complex instruments, being not suitable for in-situ analysis. Consequently, there is strong interest for developing new biosensing systems for early detection of plant diseases with high sensitivity and specificity at the point-of-care. In this context, we revise here the recent advancement in the development of advantageous biosensing systems for plant pathogen detection based on both antibody and DNA receptors. The use of different nanomaterials such as nanochannels and metallic nanoparticles for the development of innovative and sensitive biosensing systems for the detection of pathogens (i.e. bacteria and viruses) at the point-of-care is also shown. Plastic and paper-based platforms have been used for this purpose, offering cheap and easy-to-use really integrated sensing systems for rapid on-site detection. Beside devices developed at research and development level a brief revision of commercially available kits is also included in this review. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


  • Control of Electron-transfer in Immunonanosensors by Using Polyclonal and Monoclonal Antibodies

    Mars A., Parolo C., de la Escosura-Muñiz A., Raouafi N., Merkoçi A. Electroanalysis; 28 (8): 1795 - 1802. 2016. 10.1002/elan.201500646. IF: 2.471

    The design and operation of biosensors is not trivial. For instance, variation in the output signal during monitoring of analytes can not usually be controlled. Hence, if such control were possible, and could be triggered on demand, it would greatly facilitate system design and operation. Herein, we report the design of two types of voltamperometric immunosensors, in which the magnitude of the current output signal (differential pulse voltammetry [DPV]) can be increased or decreased as needed. The designed systems use monoclonal and polyclonal anti-human IgG antibodies, conjugated to monopodal ferrocene-modified gold nanoparticles that are casted onto screen-printed carbon electrodes (Ab/mFcL/AuNPs/SPCEs). Upon addition of human IgG as antigen, the systems exhibit opposite responses according to the Ab: the current decreases when monoclonal Ab is used, whereas it increases when polyclonal Ab is used. We attributed the former response to inhibition of electron-transfer (due to the formation of a protein layer), and the latter response, to a global increase in electron transfer (induced by the aggregation of gold nanoparticles). These effects were confirmed by studying a custom-made lipoic acid-based bipodal ligand, which confirmed that the increase in current is effectively induced by the aggregation of the modified nanoparticles (pAb/mFcL/AuNPs). Both sensors have large dynamic ranges, although the pAb-based one was found to be 3.3-times more sensitive. Tests of selectivity and specificity for ovalbumin, α-lactalbumin and serum bovine albumin showed that the immunosensors are highly selective and specific, even in the presence of up to 1000-fold levels of potentially competitive proteins. The limit of detection for human IgG using the pAb/mFcL/AuNP bioconjugate was estimated to be 0.85 ng/mL. The pAb/mFcL/AuNPs-based biosensor has used to determine amounts of human IgG in real sample. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  • Detection of parathyroid hormone-like hormone in cancer cell cultures by gold nanoparticle-based lateral flow immunoassays

    Chamorro-Garcia A., de la Escosura-Muñiz A., Espinoza-Castañeda M., Rodriguez-Hernandez C.J., de Torres C., Merkoçi A. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine; 12 (1): 53 - 61. 2016. 10.1016/j.nano.2015.09.012. IF: 5.671

    Parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) exerts relevant roles in progression and dissemination of several tumors. However, factors influencing its production and secretion have not been fully characterized. The main limitation is the lack of specific, sensitive and widely available techniques to detect and quantify PTHLH. We have developed a lateral flow immunoassay using gold nanoparticles label for the fast and easy detection of PTHLH in lysates and culture media of three human cell lines (HaCaT, LA-N-1, SK-N-AS). Levels in culture media and lysates ranged from 11 to 20 ng/mL and 0.66 to 0.87 μg/mL respectively. Results for HaCaT are in agreement to the previously reported, whereas LA-N-1 and SK-N-AS have been evaluated for the first time. The system also exhibits good performance in human serum samples. This methodology represents a helpful tool for future in vitro and in vivo studies of mechanisms involved in PTHLH production as well as for diagnostics. From the Clinical Editor: Parathyroid Hormone-like Hormone (PTHLH) is known to be secreted by some tumors. However, the detection of this peptide remains difficult. The authors here described their technique of using gold nanoparticles as label for the detection of PTHLH by Lateral-flow immunoassays (LFIAs). The positive results may also point a way to using the same technique for the rapid determination of other relevant cancer proteins. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

  • Magnetic Bead/Gold Nanoparticle Double-Labeled Primers for Electrochemical Detection of Isothermal Amplified Leishmania DNA

    De La Escosura-Muñiz A., Baptista-Pires L., Serrano L., Altet L., Francino O., Sánchez A., Merkoçi A. Small; 12 (2): 205 - 213. 2016. 10.1002/smll.201502350. IF: 8.315

    A novel methodology for the isothermal amplification of Leishmania DNA using labeled primers combined with the advantages of magnetic purification/preconcentration and the use of gold nanoparticle (AuNP) tags for the sensitive electrochemical detection of such amplified DNA is developed. Primers labeled with AuNPs and magnetic beads (MBs) are used for the first time for the isothermal amplification reaction, being the amplified product ready for the electrochemical detection. The electrocatalytic activity of the AuNP tags toward the hydrogen evolution reaction allows the rapid quantification of the DNA on screen-printed carbon electrodes. Amplified products from the blood of dogs with Leishmania (positive samples) are discriminated from those of healthy dogs (blank samples). Quantitative studies demonstrate that the optimized method allows us to detect less than one parasite per microliter of blood (8 × 10-3 parasites in the isothermal amplification reaction). This pioneering approach is much more sensitive than traditional methods based on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and is also more rapid, cheap, and user-friendly. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  • Nanochannels for electrical biosensing

    de la Escosura-Muñiz A., Merkoçi A. TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry; 79: 134 - 150. 2016. 10.1016/j.trac.2015.12.003. IF: 7.487

    This review shows the recent trends on the use of both single and array nanochannels for electrical biosensing applications. Some general considerations on the principles of the stochastic sensing, together with an overview about the common routes for nanochannels preparation before focusing on the applications for DNA, protein, virus, toxin and other analytes detection are given. Emerging materials used to obtain nanochannels, such as graphene and its analogues as well as novel systems based on the use of nanoparticles in combination with nanochannels are discussed. Aspects related to the analytical performance of the developed devices are also discussed. Finally prospects for future improvements and applications of this technology are included. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


  • Alzheimer's disease biomarkers detection in human samples by efficient capturing through porous magnetic microspheres and labelling with electrocatalytic gold nanoparticles

    de la Escosura-Muñiz A., Plichta Z., Horák D., Merkoçi A. Biosensors and Bioelectronics; 67: 162 - 169. 2015. 10.1016/j.bios.2014.07.086. IF: 6.409

    A nanobiosensor based on the use of porous magnetic microspheres (PMM) as efficient capturing/pre-concentrating platform is presented for detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers. These PMMs prepared by a multistep swelling polymerization combined with iron oxide precipitation afford carboxyl functional groups suitable for immobilization of antibodies on the particle surface allowing an enhanced efficiency in the capturing of AD biomarkers from human serum samples. The AD biomarkers signaling is produced by gold nanoparticle (AuNP) tags monitored through their electrocatalytic effect towards hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Novel properties of PMMs in terms of high functionality and high active area available for enhanced catalytic activity of the captured AuNPs electrocatalytic tags are exploited for the first time. A thorough characterization by scanning transmission electron microscope in high angle annular dark field mode (STEM-HAADF) demonstrates the enhanced ability of PMMs to capture a higher quantity of analyte and consequently of electrocatalytic label, when compared with commercially available microspheres. The optimized and characterized PMMs are also applied for the first time for the detection of beta amyloid and ApoE at clinical relevant levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), serum and plasma samples of patients suffering from AD. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  • Highly sensitive and rapid determination of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in minced beef and water using electrocatalytic gold nanoparticle tags

    Hassan A.R.H.A.A., de la Escosura-Muñiz A., Merkoçi A. Biosensors and Bioelectronics; 67: 511 - 515. 2015. 10.1016/j.bios.2014.09.019. IF: 6.409

    A simple, highly sensitive and specific immunosensing assay for rapid detection and quantification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat and water samples based on the electrocatalytic properties of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) towards hydrogen evolution reaction and superparamagnetic microbeads (MBs) as pre-concentration/purification platforms without the need of broth enrichment is developed for the first time. Minced beef and water samples inoculated with different concentrations of E. coli O157:H7 have been tested using anti-E. coli O157-magnetic beads conjugate (MBs-pECAb) as a capture platform and sandwiching afterwards with AuNPs modified with secondary antibodies (AuNPs-sECAb) and detected using chronoamperometric measurement with screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). Detection limits (LOD) of 148, 457 and 309CFU/mL were obtained in buffer solution, minced beef and tap water samples respectively, with a broad detection range of 102-105CFU/mL in all cases. Recoveries percentages after spiking of 5 different samples of both minced beef and tap water with 103 and 104CFU/mL were 94.7 and 90.4 (in beef) and 91.3 and 94.8% (in water), respectively. Specificity, reproducibility and comparison with a commercial lateral flow kit in terms of LOD and detection range were also studied showing clear advantages of the electrochemical method performance. The successful application of this AuNPs based technology in minced beef and tap water indicates the possibility of its using in various food items and other water resources. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  • Lab-in-a-syringe using gold nanoparticles for rapid immunosensing of protein biomarkers

    Nunes Pauli G.E., De La Escosura-Muñiz A., Parolo C., Helmuth Bechtold I., Merkoçi A. Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology; 15 (2): 399 - 405. 2015. 10.1039/c4lc01123f. IF: 6.115

    We have developed a paper and gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based lab-in-a-syringe (LIS) for immunosensing of biomarkers. This simple diagnostic device features simultaneous sampling and vertical-flow operation, which means that unlike typical immunosensors, it does not suffer from any delay between sampling and detection. It can handle large-volume, low-concentration samples for analysis in diverse applications (e.g. biomedical, environmental, food, etc.). Furthermore, its operating range for sample concentration can be tuned by simply changing the volume of the syringed sample, which enables on-demand limits of detection (LOD). The LIS contains two nitrocellulose pads: the conjugate pad (which captures the analyte) and the detection pad (which signals the presence of the captured analyte) both embedded into reusable plastic cartridges. We demonstrated its efficiency in detecting human IgG (HIgG) (LOD: 1.0 ng mL-1) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (spiked urine samples; LOD: 1.9 ng mL-1). In the field, the LIS can be used for complete on-site analysis or to obtain partially analyzed samples (AuNPs with captured analyte) for subsequent detailed testing in specialized laboratories. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  • Label-free impedimetric aptasensor for ochratoxin-A detection using iridium oxide nanoparticles

    Rivas L., Mayorga-Martinez C.C., Quesada-González D., Zamora-Gálvez A., De La Escosura-Muñiz A., Merkoçi A. Analytical Chemistry; 87 (10): 5167 - 5172. 2015. 10.1021/acs.analchem.5b00890. IF: 5.636

    In this article, a novel aptasensor for ochratoxin A (OTA) detection based on a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified with polythionine (PTH) and iridium oxide nanoparticles (IrO2 NPs) is presented. The electrotransducer surface is modified with an electropolymerized film of PTH followed by the assembly of IrO2 NPs on which the aminated aptamer selective to OTA is exchanged with the citrate ions surrounding IrO2 NPs via electrostatic interactions with the same surface. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the presence of the [Fe(CN)6]-3/-4 redox probe is employed to characterize each step in the aptasensor assay and also for label-free detection of OTA in a range between 0.01 and 100 nM, obtaining one of the lowest limits of detection reported so far for label-free impedimetric detection of OTA (14 pM; 5.65 ng/kg). The reported system also exhibits a high reproducibility, a good performance with a white wine sample, and an excellent specificity against another toxin present in such sample. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  • Nanoparticle/nanochannels-based electrochemical biosensors

    Espinoza-Castañeda M., de la Escosura-Munñiz A., Merkoçi A. NanoScience and Technology; 96: 205 - 223. 2015. 10.1007/978-3-319-14406-1_9. IF: 0.000

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide a general comprehensive overview on the latest trends in the development of nanoparticle/nanochannelsbased electrochemical biosensors. Given the importance of nanoparticles, some general considerations about their use in biosensors are given before focusing on nanochannels-based electrochemical biosensing systems. A detailed description of representative and recent works covering the main nanochannel arrays fabrication techniques and their application in electrochemical biosensing systems is also given. The combination of nanochannel array sensing capability with the known advantages of nanoparticles in immunosensing is shown as an ideal approach for the diagnostic of proteins and DNA. As conclusion, the integration of nanochannel arrays with electrochemical transducers (ex. screen-printed electrode) seems to be one of the most important challenges in the development of robust sensing devices that may bring electrochemical/nanochannel-based biosensing technology to the market. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

  • Nanoparticles-based nanochannels assembled on a plastic flexible substrate for label-free immunosensing

    de la Escosura-Muñiz A., Espinoza-Castañeda M., Hasegawa M., Philippe L., Merkoçi A. Nano Research; 8 (4): 1180 - 1188. 2015. 10.1007/s12274-014-0598-5. IF: 7.010

    A novel, cheap, disposable and single-use nanoparticles-based nanochannel platform assembled on a flexible substrate for label-free immunosensing is presented. This sensing platform is formed by the dip-coating of a homogeneous and assembled monolayer of carboxylated polystyrene nanospheres (PS, 200 and 500 nm-sized) onto the working area of flexible screen-printed indium tin oxide/polyethylene terephthalate (ITO/PET) electrodes. The spaces between the self-assembled nanospheres generate well-ordered nanochannels, with inter-PS particles distances of around 65 and 24 nm respectively. The formed nanochannels are used for the effective immobilization of antibodies and subsequent protein detection based on the monitoring of [Fe(CN)6]4− flow through diffusion and the decrease in the differential pulse voltammetric signal upon immunocomplex formation. The obtained sensing system is nanochannel-size dependent and allows human immunoglobulin G (IgG) (chosen as a model analyte) to be detected at levels of 580 ng/mL. The system also exhibits an excellent specificity against other proteins present in real samples and shows good performance with a human urine sample. The developed device represents an integrated and simple biodetection system which overcomes many of the limitations of previously reported nanochannels-based approaches and can be extended in the future to several other immuno and DNA detection systems. © 2014, Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  • Triple lines gold nanoparticle-based lateral flow assay for enhanced and simultaneous detection of Leishmania DNA and endogenous control

    Rivas L., de la Escosura-Muñiz A., Serrano L., Altet L., Francino O., Sánchez A., Merkoçi A. Nano Research; 8 (11): 3704 - 3714. 2015. 10.1007/s12274-015-0870-3. IF: 7.010

    A novel triple lines lateral-flow assay (LFA) with enhanced sensitivity for the detection of Leishmania infantum DNA in dog blood samples was designed and successfully applied. The enhanced LFA methodology takes advantage of the gold nanoparticle tags (AuNPs) conjugated to polyclonal secondary antibodies, which recognize anti-FITC antibodies. The polyclonal nature of the secondary antibodies allows for multiple binding to primary antibodies, leading to enhanced AuNP plasmonics signal. Furthermore, endogenous control consisting of the amplified dog 18S rRNA gene was introduced to avoid false negatives. Using this strategy, 0.038 spiked Leishmania parasites per DNA amplification reaction (1 parasite/100 μL of DNA sample) were detected. Detection limit of LFA was found to be lower than that of the conventional techniques. In summary, our novel LFA design is a universal and simple sensing alternative that can be extended to several other biosensing scenarios. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2015, Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


  • Alzheimer Disease Biomarker Detection Through Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation Induced by Iridium Oxide Nanoparticles

    Rivas, L.; de la Escosura-Muñiz, A.; Pons, J.; Merkoçi, A. Electroanalysis; 26 (6): 1287 - 1294. 2014. 10.1002/elan.201400027. IF: 2.502

  • Electrochemical antibody-aptamer assay for VEGF cancer biomarker detection

    Ravalli A.; Marrazza G.; Rivas L.; De La Escosura-Muniz A.; Merkoci A. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering; 268 LNEE: 175 - 178. 2014. . IF: 0.000

  • Improving sensitivity of gold nanoparticle-based lateral flow assays by using wax-printed pillars as delay barriers of microfluidics

    Rivas, L.; Medina-Sánchez, M.; De La Escosura-Muñiz, A.; Merkoçi, A. Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology; 14 (22): 4406 - 4414. 2014. 10.1039/c4lc00972j. IF: 5.748


  • Casein modified gold nanoparticles for future theranostic applications

    Espinoza-Castañeda, M.; de la Escosura-Muñiz, A.; González-Ortiz, G.; Martín-Orúe, S.M.; Pérez, J.F.; Merkoçi, A. Biosensors and Bioelectronics; 40: 271 - 276. 2013. 10.1016/j.bios.2012.07.042. IF: 5.437

  • Design, preparation, and evaluation of a fixed-orientation antibody/gold-nanoparticle conjugate as an immunosensing label

    Parolo, C.; De La Escosura-Muñiz, A.; Polo, E.; Grazú, V.; De La Fuente, J.M.; Merkoçi, A. ACS applied materials & interfaces; 5 (21): 10753 - 10759. 2013. 10.1021/am4029153. IF: 5.008

  • Enhanced lateral flow immunoassay using gold nanoparticles loaded with enzymes

    Parolo, C.; de la Escosura-Muñiz, A.; Merkoçi, A. Biosensors and Bioelectronics; 40: 412 - 416. 2013. 10.1016/j.bios.2012.06.049. IF: 5.437

  • Nanochannels for diagnostic of thrombin-related diseases in human blood

    de la Escosura-Muñiz, A.; Chunglok, W.; Surareungchai, W.; Merkoçi, A. Biosensors and Bioelectronics; 40: 24 - 31. 2013. 10.1016/j.bios.2012.05.021. IF: 5.437

  • Paper-based electrodes for nanoparticles detection

    Parolo, C.; Medina-Sánchez, M.; Montõn, H.; De La Escosura-Muñiz, A.; Merkoçi, A. Particle and Particle Systems Characterization; 30: 662 - 666. 2013. 10.1002/ppsc.201200124. IF: 0.000

  • Simple paper architecture modifications lead to enhanced sensitivity in nanoparticle based lateral flow immunoassays

    Parolo, C.; Medina-Sánchez, M.; De La Escosura-Muñiz, A.; Merkoçi, A. Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology; 13 (3): 386 - 390-390. 2013. 10.1039/c2lc41144j. IF: 5.697


  • Detection of circulating cancer cells using electrocatalytic gold nanoparticles

    Maltez-Da Costa, M.; De La Escosura-Muñiz, A.; Nogués, C.; Barrios, L.; Ibáñez, E.; Merkoçi, A. Small; 8: 3605 - 3612. 2012. 10.1002/smll.201201205.

  • Nanochannels preparation and application in biosensing

    De La Escosura-Muñiz, A.; Merkoçi, A. ACS Nano; 6: 7556 - 7583. 2012. 10.1021/nn301368z.

  • Simple monitoring of cancer cells using nanoparticles

    Maltez-Da Costa, M.; De La Escosura-Muñiz, A.; Nogués, C.; Barrios, L.; Ibáñez, E.; Merkoçi, A. Nano Letters; 12: 4164 - 4171. 2012. 10.1021/nl301726g.


  • Size-dependent direct electrochemical detection of gold nanoparticles: Application in magnetoimmunoassays

    De La Escosura-Muñiz, A.; Parolo, C.; Maran, F.; Mekoi, A. Nanoscale; 3: 3350 - 3356. 2011. 10.1039/c1nr10377f.


  • A Nanochannel/Nanoparticle-Based Filtering and Sensing Platform for Direct Detection of a Cancer Biomarker in Blood

    de la Escosura-Muñiz, A.; Merkoçi, A. Small; 2010. .

  • Aptamers based electrochemical biosensor for protein detection using carbon nanotubes platforms

    Kara, P.; de la Escosura-Muñiz, A.; Maltez-da Costa, M.; Guix, M.; Ozsoz, M.; Merkoçi, A. Biosensors and Bioelectronics; 26: 1715 - 1718. 2010. 10.1016/j.bios.2010.07.090.

  • Electrochemical detection of proteins using nanoparticles: applications to diagnostics

    de la Escosura-Muñiz, A.; Merkoçi, A. Expert Opinion on Medical Diagnostics; 2010. .

  • Gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical magnetoimmunosensor for rapid detection of anti-hepatitis B virus antibodies in human serum

    de la Escosura-Muñiz, A.; Maltez-da Costa, M.; Sánchez-Espinel, C.; Díaz-Freitas, B.; Fernández-Suarez, J.; González-Fernández, Á.; Merkoçi, A. Biosensors and Bioelectronics; 26: 1710 - 1714. 2010. 10.1016/j.bios.2010.07.069.

  • Immunosensing using nanoparticles

    De La Escosura-Muñiz, A.; Parolo, C.; Merkoçi, A. Materials Today; 13: 24 - 34. 2010. 10.1016/S1369-7021(10)70125-5.

  • Label-free voltammetric immunosensor using a nanoporous membrane based platform

    De La Escosura-Muñiz, A.; Merkoçi, A. Electrochemistry Communications; 12: 859 - 863. 2010. 10.1016/j.elecom.2010.04.007.

  • Nanoparticle based enhancement of electrochemical DNA hybridization signal using nanoporous electrodes

    De La Escosura-Muñiz, A.; Merkoçi, A. Chemical Communications; 46: 9007 - 9009. 2010. 10.1039/c0cc02683b.


  • Controlling the electrochemical deposition of silver onto gold nanoparticles: reducing interferences and increasing the sensitivity of magnetoimmuno assays

    de la Escosura, A. ; Máltez, M.; Merkoçi, A. Biosensors and Bioelectronics; 24: 2475 - 2482. 2009. .

  • Electrochemical analysis with nanoparticle based biosystems

    de la Escosura-Muñiz, A.; Ambrosi, A.; Merkoçi, A. TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry; 27 (7): 568 - 584. 2009. 10.1016/j.trac.2008.05.008.

  • ICP-MS- a powerful technique for quantitative determination of gold nanoparticles without previous dissolving

    R. Allabashi; W. Stach; A. de la Escosura; L. Liste; A. Merkoçi Journal of Nanoparticle Research; 11: 2003 - 2011. 2009. 10.1007/s11051-008-9561-2.

  • Rapid identification and quantification of tumor cells using an electrocatalytic method based on gold nanoparticles

    De La Escosura-Muñiz, A.; Sánchez-Espinel, C.; Díaz-Freitas, B.; González-Fernández, Á.; Maltez-Da Costa, M.; Merkoçi, A. Analytical Chemistry; 81: 10268 - 10274. 2009. 10.1021/ac902087k.


  • Silver, gold and the corresponding core shell nanoparticles: synthesis and characteritzation

    Fraser Douglas; Ramon Yanez; Josep Ros; Sergio Marín; Alfredo de la Escosura; Salvador Alegret; Arben Merkoçi Journal of Nanoparticle Research; 10: 97 - 106. 2008. 10.1007/s11051-008-9374-3.


  • DNA hybridization sensor based on aurothiomalate electroactive label on glassy carbon electrodes

    De la Escosura Muñiz A.; González García M.B.; Costa García A. Biosensors and Bioelectronics; 22 (6): 1048 - 1054. 2007. 10.1016/j.bios.2006.04.024.