Staff directory

Pablo Ordejón Rontomé

CSIC Research Professor and Group Leader and Director
pablo.ordejon(ELIMINAR)@icn2.cat
Theory and Simulation - Management

Publications

2017

  • Ab initio study of electron-phonon coupling in rubrene

    Ordejón P., Boskovic D., Panhans M., Ortmann F. Physical Review B; 96 (3, 035202) 2017. 10.1103/PhysRevB.96.035202. IF: 3.836

    The use of ab initio methods for accurate simulations of electronic, phononic, and electron-phonon properties of molecular materials such as organic crystals is a challenge that is often tackled stepwise based on molecular properties calculated in gas phase and perturbatively treated parameters relevant for solid phases. In contrast, in this work we report a full first-principles description of such properties for the prototypical rubrene crystals. More specifically, we determine a Holstein-Peierls-type Hamiltonian for rubrene, including local and nonlocal electron-phonon couplings. Thereby, a recipe for circumventing the issue of numerical inaccuracies with low-frequency phonons is presented. In addition, we study the phenyl group motion with a molecular dynamics approach. © 2017 American Physical Society.


  • Anisotropic features in the electronic structure of the two-dimensional transition metal trichalcogenide TiS3: Electron doping and plasmons

    Silva-Guillén J.A., Canadell E., Ordejón P., Guinea F., Roldán R. 2D Materials; 4 (2, 025085) 2017. 10.1088/2053-1583/aa6b92. IF: 6.937

    Analysis of the band structure of TiS3 single-layers suggests the possibility of changing their physical behaviour by injecting electron carriers. The anisotropy of the valence and conduction bands is explained in terms of their complex orbital composition. The nature of the Fermi surface and Lindhard response function for different doping concentrations is studied by means of firstprinciples DFT calculations. It is suggested that for electron doping levels x (number of electrons per unit cell) ~0.18-0.30e- the system could exhibit incommensurate charge or spin modulations which, however, would keep the metallic state whereas systems doped with smaller x would be 2D metals without any electronic instability. The effect of spin-orbit coupling in the band dispersion is analysed. The DFT effective masses are used to study the plasmon spectrum from an effective low energy model. We find that this material supports highly anisotropic plasmons, with opposite anisotropy for the electron and hole bands.


  • Growth of Twin-Free and Low-Doped Topological Insulators on BaF2(111)

    Bonell F., Cuxart M.G., Song K., Robles R., Ordejón P., Roche S., Mugarza A., Valenzuela S.O. Crystal Growth and Design; 17 (9): 4655 - 4660. 2017. 10.1021/acs.cgd.7b00525. IF: 4.055

    We demonstrate the growth of twin-free Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 topological insulators by molecular beam epitaxy and a sizable reduction of the twin density in Bi2Se3 on lattice-matched BaF2(111) substrates. Using X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy, we systematically investigate the parameters influencing the formation of twin domains and the morphology of the films, and show that Se- and Te-based alloys differ by their growth mechanism. Optimum growth parameters are shown to result in intrinsically low-doped films, as probed by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. In contrast to previous approaches in which twin-free Bi2Se3 films are achieved by increasing the substrate roughness, the quality of our Bi2Te3 is superior on the flattest BaF2 substrates. This finding indicates that, during nucleation, the films not only interact with the topmost atomic substrate layer but also with buried layers that provide the necessary stacking information to promote a single twin, an observation that is supported by ab initio calculations. © 2017 American Chemical Society.


  • Voltage-Induced Coercivity Reduction in Nanoporous Alloy Films: A Boost toward Energy-Efficient Magnetic Actuation

    Quintana A., Zhang J., Isarain-Chávez E., Menéndez E., Cuadrado R., Robles R., Baró M.D., Guerrero M., Pané S., Nelson B.J., Müller C.M., Ordejón P., Nogués J., Pellicer E., Sort J. Advanced Functional Materials; 27 (32, 1701904) 2017. 10.1002/adfm.201701904. IF: 12.124

    Magnetic data storage and magnetically actuated devices are conventionally controlled by magnetic fields generated using electric currents. This involves significant power dissipation by Joule heating effect. To optimize energy efficiency, manipulation of magnetic information with lower magnetic fields (i.e., lower electric currents) is desirable. This can be accomplished by reducing the coercivity of the actuated material. Here, a drastic reduction of coercivity is observed at room temperature in thick (≈600 nm), nanoporous, electrodeposited Cu–Ni films by simply subjecting them to the action of an electric field. The effect is due to voltage-induced changes in the magnetic anisotropy. The large surface-area-to-volume ratio and the ultranarrow pore walls of the system allow the whole film, and not only the topmost surface, to effectively contribute to the observed magnetoelectric effect. This waives the stringent “ultrathin-film requirement” from previous studies, where small voltage-driven coercivity variations were reported. This observation expands the already wide range of applications of nanoporous materials (hitherto in areas like energy storage or catalysis) and it opens new paradigms in the fields of spintronics, computation, and magnetic actuation in general. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim


2016

  • Electronic structure of 2H-NbSe2 single-layers in the CDW state

    Silva-Guillén J.Á., Ordejón P., Guinea F., Canadell E. 2D Materials; 3 (3, 035028) 2016. 10.1088/2053-1583/3/3/035028. IF: 9.611

    Adensity functional theory study of NbSe2"Qsingle-layers in the normal non-modulated and the 3"Q¡Ñ"Q3 CDWstates is reported.Weshow that, in the single layer, the CDW barely affects the Fermi surface of the system, thus ruling out a nesting mechanism as the driving force for the modulation. The CDW stabilizes levels lying around 1.35 eV below the Fermi level within the Se-based valence band but having a substantial Nb-VNb bonding character. The absence of interlayer interactions leads to the suppression of the pancake-like portion of the bulk Fermi surface in the single-layer.Weperform scanning tunneling microscopy simulations and find that the images noticeably change with the sign and magnitude of the voltage bias. The atomic corrugation of the Se sublayer induced by the modulation plays a primary role in leading to these images, but the electronic reorganization also has an important contribution. The analysis of the variation of these images with the bias voltage does not support a Fermi surface nesting mechanism for the CDW. It is also shown that underlying graphene layers (present in some of the recent experimental work) do not modify the conduction band, but do affect the shape of the valence band of NbSe2"Qsingle-layers. The relevance of these results in understanding recent physical measurements for NbSe2"Qsingle-layers is discussed. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.


  • How disorder affects topological surface states in the limit of ultrathin Bi2Se3 films

    Song K., Soriano D., Robles R., Ordejon P., Roche S. 2D Materials; 3 (4, 045007) 2016. 10.1088/2053-1583/3/4/045007. IF: 9.611

    We present a first-principles study of electronic properties of ultrathin films of topological insulators (TIs) and scrutinize the role of disorder on the robustness of topological surface states, which can be analysed through their spin textures. The presence of twin grain boundaries is found to increase the band gap of the film, while preserving the spin texture of states in first conduction and valence bands. Differently, partial hydrogenation of one surface not only results in some self-doping effect, but also provokes some alteration of the spin texture symmetry of the electronic states. The formation of a new Dirac cone at M-point of the Brillouin zone of the hydrogenated surface, together with a modified spin texture characteristics are consistent with a dominant Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction type, more usually observed in 3D materials. Our findings indicate that defects can either be detrimental or beneficial for exploring spin transport of surface states in the limit of ultrathin films of TIs, which maximizes surface over bulk phenomena. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.


  • Nanotexturing to Enhance Photoluminescent Response of Atomically Thin Indium Selenide with Highly Tunable Band Gap

    Brotons-Gisbert M., Andres-Penares D., Suh J., Hidalgo F., Abargues R., Rodríguez-Cantó P.J., Segura A., Cros A., Tobias G., Canadell E., Ordejón P., Wu J., Martínez-Pastor J.P., Sánchez-Royo J.F. Nano Letters; 16 (5): 3221 - 3229. 2016. 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b00689. IF: 13.779

    Manipulating properties of matter at the nanoscale is the essence of nanotechnology, which has enabled the realization of quantum dots, nanotubes, metamaterials, and two-dimensional materials with tailored electronic and optical properties. Two-dimensional semiconductors have revealed promising perspectives in nanotechnology. However, the tunability of their physical properties is challenging for semiconductors studied until now. Here we show the ability of morphological manipulation strategies, such as nanotexturing or, at the limit, important surface roughness, to enhance light absorption and the luminescent response of atomically thin indium selenide nanosheets. Besides, quantum-size confinement effects make this two-dimensional semiconductor to exhibit one of the largest band gap tunability ranges observed in a two-dimensional semiconductor: from infrared, in bulk material, to visible wavelengths, at the single layer. These results are relevant for the design of new optoelectronic devices, including heterostructures of two-dimensional materials with optimized band gap functionalities and in-plane heterojunctions with minimal junction defect density. © 2016 American Chemical Society.


2015

  • Capacitive DNA Detection Driven by Electronic Charge Fluctuations in a Graphene Nanopore

    Feliciano G.T., Sanz-Navarro C., Coutinho-Neto M.D., Ordejón P., Scheicher R.H., Rocha A.R. Physical Review Applied; 3 (3, 034003) 2015. 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.3.034003. IF: 0.000

    The advent of parallelized automated methods for rapid whole-genome analysis has led to an exponential drop in costs, thus greatly accelerating biomedical research and discovery. Third-generation sequencing techniques, which would utilize the characteristic electrical conductance of the four different nucleotides, could facilitate longer base read lengths and an even lower price per genome. In this work, we propose and apply a quantum-classical hybrid methodology to quantitatively determine the influence of the solvent on the dynamics of DNA and the resulting electron transport properties of a prototypic sequencing device utilizing a graphene nanopore through which the nucleic-acid chain is threaded. Our results show that charge fluctuations in the nucleotides are responsible for characteristic conductance modulations in this system, which can be regarded as a field-effect transistor tuned by the dynamic aqueous environment. © 2015 American Physical Society.


  • Quasiparticle spectra of 2H-NbSe2: Two-band superconductivity and the role of tunneling selectivity

    Noat Y., Silva-Guillén J.A., Cren T., Cherkez V., Brun C., Pons S., Debontridder F., Roditchev D., Sacks W., Cario L., Ordejón P., García A., Canadell E. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; 92 (13, 134510) 2015. 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.134510. IF: 3.736

    We have studied the superconducting state of 2H-NbSe2 by scanning tunneling spectroscopy along two different crystal orientations, the c and the a/b axes. Along the c axis a large gap is dominant in the spectra, while a smaller gap is measured along the a/b axis. We show that these spectra are accurately described by the McMillan model where the small gap is induced through the coupling to the band associated with the large gap. In order to assign the small and large gaps to specific parts of the 2H-NbSe2 Fermi surface, the electronic structure was studied using first-principles calculations. While we cannot exclude the possibility of intrinsic anisotropy of the gaps, we propose that the large gap opens in the Fermi surface cylinders located around the corner K points while the sheets located around Γ are associated with the small gap. An additional component of the Fermi surface, a selenium based pocket, plays an essential role in the tunneling process. The role of the charge density wave occurring in this material is also discussed. Finally, we are able to give a coherent description of the observed characteristics of the tunneling spectra of 2H-NbSe2 as well as the differences with 2H-NbS2 where no charge density wave state is present. Further experimental work, such as high-resolution ARPES, would be very useful to confirm our interpretation. The approach and modeling developed here could also be relevant for other compounds of the dichalcogenide family. © 2015 American Physical Society.


  • Tunneling and electronic structure of the two-gap superconductor MgB2

    Silva-Guillén J.A., Noat Y., Cren T., Sacks W., Canadell E., Ordejón P. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; 92 (6, 064514) 2015. 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.064514. IF: 3.736

    A combined experimental (superconductor-insulator-superconductor tunneling spectra) and theoretical (density functional theory) study of the two-gap superconductor MgB2 is reported. The calculations confirm that the small gap is associated with a π band mostly based on the boron pz orbitals leading to the three-dimensional band component of the Fermi surface. This channel almost completely dominates the tunneling images and spectra for c-axis-oriented samples and not the two-dimensional σ band. The origin of this effect is due to the faster decay of the electronic states associated with the boron px and py orbitals compared to those associated with the boron pz orbitals, together with the symmetry properties of the wave functions. The calculated tunneling channels and partial density of states for each band agree with the values deduced from precise fits of experimental tunneling spectra. The present approach provides a framework for the understanding of tunneling spectra and the nature of superconducting gaps of other multigap superconductors. © 2015 American Physical Society.


2014

  • Electronic properties of single-layer and multilayer transition metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M = Mo, W and X = S, Se)

    Roldán R., Silva-Guillén J.A., López-Sancho M.P., Guinea F., Cappelluti E., Ordejón P. Annalen der Physik; 526 (9-10): 347 - 357. 2014. 10.1002/andp.201400128.

    Single- and few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides have recently emerged as a new family of layered crystals with great interest, not only from the fundamental point of view, but also because of their potential application in ultrathin devices. Here the electronic properties of semiconducting MX2, where M = Mo or W and X = S or Se, are reviewed. Based on of density functional theory calculations, which include the effect of spin-orbit interaction, the band structure of single-layer, bilayer and bulk compounds is discussed. The band structure of these compounds is highly sensitive to elastic deformations, and it is reviewed how strain engineering can be used to manipulate and tune the electronic and optical properties of those materials. Further, the effect of disorder and imperfections in the lattice structure and their effect on the optical and transport properties of MX2 is discussed. The superconducting transition in these compounds, which has been observed experimentally, is analyzed, as well as the different mechanisms proposed so far to explain the pairing. Finally, a discussion on the excitonic effects which are present in these systems is included. © 2014 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.


  • Momentum dependence of spin-orbit interaction effects in single-layer and multi-layer transition metal dichalcogenides

    Roldán R., López-Sancho M.P., Guinea F., Cappelluti E., Silva-Guillén J.A., Ordejón P. 2D Materials; 1 (3, 034003) 2014. 10.1088/2053-1583/1/3/034003.

    One of the main characteristics of the new family of two-dimensional crystals of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) is the strong spin-orbit interaction, which makes them very promising for future applications in spintronics and valleytronics devices. Here we present a detailed study of the effect of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) on the band structure of single-layer and bulk TMDs, including explicitly the role of the chalcogen orbitals and their hybridization with the transition metal atoms. To this aim, we combine density functional theory (DFT) calculations with a Slater-Koster tight-binding (TB) model. Whereas most of the previous TB models have been restricted to the K and K' points of the Brillouin zone (BZ), here we consider the effect of SOC in the whole BZ, and the results are compared to the band structure obtained by DFT methods. The TB model is used to analyze the effect of SOC in the band structure, considering separately the contributions from the transition metal and the chalcogen atoms. Finally, we present a scenario where, in the case of strong SOC, the spin/orbital/valley entanglement at the minimum of the conduction band at Q can be probed and be of experimental interest in the most common cases of electron-doping reported for this family of compounds. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.


2013

  • Manganese 3×3 and √3×√3-R30 â̂̃ structures and structural phase transition on w-GaN(0001̄) studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and first-principles theory

    Chinchore A.V., Wang K., Shi M., Mandru A., Liu Y., Haider M., Smith A.R., Ferrari V., Barral M.A., Ordejón P. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; 87 (16, 165426) 2013. 10.1103/PhysRevB.87.165426.

    Manganese deposited on the N-polar face of wurtzite gallium nitride [GaN (0001̄)] results in two unique surface reconstructions, depending on the deposition temperature. At lower temperature (less than 105 â̂̃C), it is found that a metastable 3×3 structure forms. Mild annealing of this Mn 3×3 structure leads to an irreversible phase transition to a different, much more stable √3×√3-R30â̂̃ structure which can withstand high-temperature annealing. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and reflection high-energy electron diffraction data are compared with results from first-principles theoretical calculations. Theory finds a lowest-energy model for the 3×3 structure consisting of Mn trimers bonded to the Ga adlayer atoms but not with N atoms. The lowest-energy model for the more stable √3×√3-R30â̂̃ structure involves Mn atoms substituting for Ga within the Ga adlayer and thus bonding with N atoms. Tersoff-Hamman simulations of the resulting lowest-energy structural models are found to be in very good agreement with the experimental STM images. © 2013 American Physical Society.


  • Tight-binding model and direct-gap/indirect-gap transition in single-layer and multilayer MoS2

    Cappelluti E., Roldán R., Silva-Guillén J.A., Ordejón P., Guinea F. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; 88 (7, 075409) 2013. 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.075409.

    In this paper we present a paradigmatic tight-binding model for single-layer as well as multilayered semiconducting MoS2 and similar transition metal dichalcogenides. We show that the electronic properties of multilayer systems can be reproduced in terms of a tight-binding modeling of the single-layer hopping terms by simply adding the proper interlayer hoppings ruled by the chalcogenide atoms. We show that such a tight-binding model makes it possible to understand and control in a natural way the transition between a direct-gap band structure, in single-layer systems, and an indirect gap in multilayer compounds in terms of a momentum/orbital selective interlayer splitting of the relevant valence and conduction bands. The model represents also a suitable playground to investigate in an analytical way strain and finite-size effects. © 2013 American Physical Society.


2012

  • Calculation of core level shifts within DFT using pseudopotentials and localized basis sets

    García-Gil S., García A., Ordejón P. European Physical Journal B; 85 (7, 239) 2012. 10.1140/epjb/e2012-30334-5.

    The calculation of core level shifts can be done in the context of density functional theory (DFT) using different approaches and physical approximations to the photoemission process. The initial state and the SCF approximations are the most commonly used ones. Here, we describe the details of their implementation in the context of DFT using pseudopotentials and localized atomic orbitals as a basis set, and in particular as applied to the Siesta code. We give a full account of the technicalities involved in these calculations, including the details of the ionic pseudopotential generation, basis sets, charge states and reference potential. We test the method by computing the core level shifts of the Si 2p level for a series of molecules and the p(2×2) asymmetric-dimer reconstruction of the Si(001) surface. © EDP Sciences, Societá Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag 2012.


  • Dielectric screening in extended systems using the self-consistent Sternheimer equation and localized basis sets

    Hübener H., Pérez-Osorio M.A., Ordejón P., Giustino F. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; 85 (24, 245125) 2012. 10.1103/PhysRevB.85.245125.

    We develop a first-principles computational method for investigating the dielectric screening in extended systems using the self-consistent Sternheimer equation and localized nonorthogonal basis sets. Our approach does not require the explicit calculation of unoccupied electronic states, uses only two-center integrals, and has a theoretical scaling of order O(N3). We demonstrate this method by comparing our calculations for silicon, germanium, diamond, and LiCl with reference plane-wave calculations. We show that accuracy comparable to that of plane-wave calculations can be achieved via a systematic optimization of the basis set. © 2012 American Physical Society.


  • Electroresistance effect in ferroelectric tunnel junctions with symmetric electrodes

    Bilc D.I., Novaes F.D., Íñiguez J., Ordejón P., Ghosez P. ACS Nano; 6 (2): 1473 - 1478. 2012. 10.1021/nn2043324.

    Understanding the effects that govern electronic transport in ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) is of vital importance to improve the efficiency of devices such as ferroelectric memories with nondestructive readout. However, our current knowledge (typically based on simple semiempirical models or first-principles calculations restricted to the limit of zero bias) remains partial, which may hinder the development of more efficient systems. For example, nowadays it is commonly believed that the tunnel electroresistance (TER) effect exploited in such devices mandatorily requires, to be sizable, the use of two different electrodes, with related potential drawbacks concerning retention time, switching, and polarization imprint. In contrast, here we demonstrate at the first-principles level that large TER values of about 200% can be achieved under finite bias in a prototypical FTJ with symmetric electrodes. Our atomistic approach allows us to quantify the contribution of different microscopic mechanisms to the electroresistance, revealing the dominant role of the inverse piezoelectric response of the ferroelectric. On the basis of our analysis, we provide a critical discussion of the semiempirical models traditionally used to describe FTJs. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


  • Insulating behavior of an amorphous graphene membrane

    Van Tuan D., Kumar A., Roche S., Ortmann F., Thorpe M.F., Ordejon P. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; 86 (12, 121408) 2012. 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.121408.

    We investigate the charge transport properties of planar amorphous graphene that is fully topologically disordered, in the form of sp2 threefold coordinated networks consisting of hexagonal rings but also including many pentagons and heptagons distributed in a random fashion. Using the Kubo transport methodology and the Lanczos method, the density of states, mean free paths, and semiclassical conductivities of such amorphous graphene membranes are computed. Despite a large increase in the density of states close to the charge neutrality point, all electronic properties are dramatically degraded, evidencing an Anderson insulating state caused by topological disorder alone. These results are supported by Landauer-Büttiker conductance calculations, which show a localization length as short as 5 nm. © 2012 American Physical Society.


  • Y:BaZrO 3 perovskite compounds I: DFT study on the unprotonated and protonated local structures

    Cammarata A., Ordejón P., Emanuele A., Duca D. Chemistry - An Asian Journal; 7 (8): 1827 - 1837. 2012. 10.1002/asia.201100974.

    Y-doped BaZrO 3 derivatives were studied by density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the local arrangements of the octahedral sites in Pm${\bar 3}$m cubic frameworks. Single- and double substitution of zirconium by yttrium were considered, including in the presence of a nearby oxygen vacancy. Although the structural symmetry of undoped barium zirconate was not modified after yttrium doping, the presence of yttrium induced several differences in the oxygen sites around it, according to the local geometrical arrangement of yttrium in the host matrix. As an example, the differences between such oxygen sites were shown in the presence of a proton. In this case, different stabilization energies characterized the protonated fragments. Only in those structures, in which two yttrium atoms were neighbors (i.e., formed Y-O-Y moieties), were the relative energy differences between the corresponding proton stable sites in agreement with the order of magnitude of the experimental proton-hopping activation energies. The distribution of such energy differences suggested a grouping of the oxygen atoms into three sets, which had peculiar structural features that weren't easily deducible from their topologies. The existence of proton traps was also discussed on the basis of the energy-difference distributions. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


2011

  • An efficient implementation of a QM-MM method in SIESTA

    Sanz-Navarro C.F., Grima R., García A., Bea E.A., Soba A., Cela J.M., Ordejón P. Theoretical Chemistry Accounts; 128 (4): 825 - 833. 2011. 10.1007/s00214-010-0816-5.

    We present the major features of a new implementation of a QM-MM method that uses the DFT code Siesta to treat the quantum mechanical subsystem and the AMBER force field to deal with the classical part. The computation of the electrostatic interaction has been completely revamped to treat periodic boundary conditions exactly, using a real-space grid that encompasses the whole system. Additionally, we present a new parallelization of the Siesta grid operations that provides near-perfect load balancing for all the relevant operations and achieves a much better scalability, which is important for efficient massive QM-MM calculations in which the grid can potentially be very large. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


  • Magnetism-dependent transport phenomena in hydrogenated graphene: From spin-splitting to localization effects

    Leconte N., Soriano D., Roche S., Ordejon P., Charlier J.-C., Palacios J.J. ACS Nano; 5 (5): 3987 - 3992. 2011. 10.1021/nn200558d.

    Spin-dependent transport in hydrogenated two-dimensional graphene is explored theoretically. Adsorbed atomic hydrogen impurities can either induce a local antiferromagnetic, ferromagnetic, or nonmagnetic state depending on their density and relative distribution. To describe the various magnetic possibilities of hydrogenated graphene, a self-consistent Hubbard Hamiltonian, optimized by ab initio calculations, is first solved in the mean field approximation for small graphene cells. Then, an efficient order N Kubo transport methodology is implemented, enabling large scale simulations of functionalized graphene. Depending on the underlying intrinsic magnetic ordering of hydrogen-induced spins, remarkably different transport features are predicted for the same impurity concentration. Indeed, while the disordered nonmagnetic graphene system exhibits a transition from diffusive to localization regimes, the intrinsic ferromagnetic state exhibits unprecedented robustness toward quantum interference, maintaining, for certain resonant energies, a quasiballistic regime up to the micrometer scale. Consequently, low temperature transport measurements could unveil the presence of a magnetic state in weakly hydrogenated graphene. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


  • Magnetoresistance and magnetic ordering fingerprints in hydrogenated graphene

    Soriano D., Leconte N., Ordejón P., Charlier J.-C., Palacios J.-J., Roche S. Physical Review Letters; 107 (1, 016602) 2011. 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.016602.

    Spin-dependent features in the conductivity of graphene, chemically modified by a random distribution of hydrogen adatoms, are explored theoretically. The spin effects are taken into account using a mean-field self-consistent Hubbard model derived from first-principles calculations. A Kubo transport methodology is used to compute the spin-dependent transport fingerprints of weakly hydrogenated graphene-based systems with realistic sizes. Conductivity responses are obtained for paramagnetic, antiferromagnetic, or ferromagnetic macroscopic states, constructed from the mean-field solutions obtained for small graphene supercells. Magnetoresistance signals up to ∼7% are calculated for hydrogen densities around 0.25%. These theoretical results could serve as guidance for experimental observation of induced magnetism in graphene. © 2011 American Physical Society.


  • Modulation of surface charge transfer through competing long-range repulsive versus short-range attractive interactions

    Fraxedas J., García-Gil S., Monturet S., Lorente N., Fernández-Torrente I., Franke K.J., Pascual J.I., Vollmer A., Blum R.-P., Koch N., Ordejón P. Journal of Physical Chemistry C; 115 (38): 18640 - 18648. 2011. 10.1021/jp2050838.

    We report a combined experimental and theoretical study of the modulation of surface charge transfer on the tetrathiafulvalene (TTF)/Au(111) interface as a function of coverage in the submonolayer regime by combining low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy, high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The modulation is induced by the competition between long-range repulsive Coulombic interactions and short-range attractive hydrogen-bonding interactions. The system shows the characteristic pattern evolution, from monomeric stripes at low coverages to two-dimensional islands, with the formation of labyrinths in the crossover. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


  • Oxygen surface functionalization of graphene nanoribbons for transport gap engineering

    Cresti A., Lopez-Bezanilla A., Ordejón P., Roche S. ACS Nano; 5 (11): 9271 - 9277. 2011. 10.1021/nn203573y.

    We numerically investigate the impact of epoxide adsorbates on the transport properties of graphene nanoribbons with width varying from a few nanometers to 15 nm. For the wider ribbons, a scaling analysis of conductance properties is performed for adsorbate density ranging from 0.1% to 0.5%. Oxygen atoms introduce a large electron-hole transport asymmetry with mean free paths changing by up to 1 order of magnitude, depending on the hole or electron nature of charge carriers. The opening of a transport gap on the electron side for GNRs as wide as 15 nm could be further exploited to control current flow and achieve larger ON/OFF ratios, despite the initially small intrinsic energy gap. The effect of the adsorbates in narrow ribbons is also investigated by full ab initio calculations to explore the limit of ultimate downsized systems. In this case, the inhomogeneous distribution of adsorbates and their interplay with the ribbon edge are found to play an important role. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


  • Quantum transport in chemically modified two-dimensional graphene: From minimal conductivity to Anderson localization

    Leconte N., Lherbier A., Varchon F., Ordejon P., Roche S., Charlier J.-C. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; 84 (23, 235420) 2011. 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.235420.

    An efficient computational methodology is used to explore charge transport properties in chemically modified (and randomly disordered) graphene-based materials. The Hamiltonians of various complex forms of graphene are constructed using tight-binding models enriched by first-principles calculations. These atomistic models are further implemented into a real-space order-N Kubo-Greenwood approach, giving access to the main transport length scales (mean free paths, localization lengths) as a function of defect density and charge carrier energy. An extensive investigation is performed for epoxide impurities with specific discussions on both the existence of a minimum semiclassical conductivity and a crossover between weak to strong localization regime. The 2D generalization of the Thouless relationship linking transport length scales is here illustrated based on a realistic disorder model. © 2011 American Physical Society.


  • Structural, dynamical, and electronic transport properties of modified DNA duplexes containing size-expanded nucleobases

    Blas J.R., Huertas O., Tabares C., Sumpter B.G., Fuentes-Cabrera M., Orozco M., Ordejón P., Luque F.J. Journal of Physical Chemistry A; 115 (41): 11344 - 11354. 2011. 10.1021/jp205122c.

    Among the distinct strategies proposed to expand the genetic alphabet, size-expanded nucleobases are promising for the development of modified DNA duplexes with improved biotechnological properties. In particular, duplexes built up by replacing canonical bases with the corresponding benzo-fused counterparts could be valuable as molecular nanowires. In this context, this study reports the results of classical molecular dynamics simulations carried out to examine the structural and dynamical features of size-expanded DNAs, including both hybrid duplexes containing mixed pairs of natural and benzo-fused bases (xDNA) and pure size-expanded (xxDNA) duplexes. Furthermore, the electronic structure of both natural and size-expanded duplexes is examined by means of density functional computations. The results confirm that the structural and flexibility properties of the canonical DNA are globally little affected by the presence of benzo-fused bases. The most relevant differences are found in the enhanced size of the grooves, and the reduction in the twist. However, the analysis also reveals subtle structural effects related to the nature and sequence of benzo-fused bases in the duplex. On the other hand, electronic structure calculations performed for xxDNAs confirm the reduction in the HOMO-LUMO gap predicted from the analysis of the natural bases and their size-expanded counterparts, which suggests that pure size-expanded DNAs can be good conductors. A more complex situation is found for xDNAs, where fluctuations in the electrostatic interaction between base pairs exerts a decisive influence on the modulation of the energy gap. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


2010

  • Band selection and disentanglement using maximally localized Wannier functions: The cases of Co impurities in bulk copper and the Cu(111) surface

    Korytár R., Pruneda M., Junquera J., Ordejón P., Lorente N. Journal of Physics Condensed Matter; 22 (38, 385601) 2010. 10.1088/0953-8984/22/38/385601.

    We have adapted the maximally localized Wannier function approach of Souza et al (2002 Phys. Rev. B 65 035109) to the density functional theory based Siesta code (Soler et al 2002 J. Phys.: Condens. Mater. 14 2745) and applied it to the study of Co substitutional impurities in bulk copper as well as to the Cu(111) surface. In the Co impurity case, we have reduced the problem to the Co d-electrons and the Cu sp-band, permitting us to obtain an Anderson-like Hamiltonian from well defined density functional parameters in a fully orthonormal basis set. In order to test the quality of the Wannier approach to surfaces, we have studied the electronic structure of the Cu(111) surface by again transforming the density functional problem into the Wannier representation. An excellent description of the Shockley surface state is attained, permitting us to be confident in the application of this method to future studies of magnetic adsorbates in the presence of an extended surface state. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.


  • Damaging graphene with ozone treatment: A chemically tunable metal - Insulator transition

    Leconte N., Moser J., Ordejón P., Tao H., Lherbier A., Bachtold A., Alsina F., Sotomayor Torres C.M., Charlier J.-C., Roche S. ACS Nano; 4 (7): 4033 - 4038. 2010. 10.1021/nn100537z.

    We present a multiscale ab initio study of electronic and transport properties of two-dimensional graphene after epoxide functionalization via ozone treatment. The orbital rehybridization induced by the epoxide groups triggers a strong intervalley scattering and changes dramatically the conduction properties of graphene. By varying the coverage density of epoxide defects from 0.1 to 4%, charge conduction can be tuned from a diffusive to a strongly localized regime, with localization lengths down to a few nanometers long. Experimental results supporting the interpretation as a metal - insulator transition are also provided. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


  • Density-wave instability in α- ( BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN) 4 studied by x-ray diffuse scattering and by first-principles calculations

    Foury-Leylekian P., Pouget J.-P., Lee Y.-J., Nieminen R.M., Ordejón P., Canadell E. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; 82 (13, 134116) 2010. 10.1103/PhysRevB.82.134116.

    α- (BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4 develops a density wave ground state below 8 K whose origin is still debated. Here we report a combined x-ray diffuse scattering and first-principles density functional theory study supporting the charge density wave (CDW) scenario. In particular, we observe a triply incommensurate anharmonic lattice modulation with intralayer wave vector components which coincide within experimental errors to the maximum of the calculated Lindhard response function. A detailed study of the structural aspects of the modulation shows that the CDW instability in α- ( BEDT-TTF) 2 KHg ( SCN) 4 is considerably more involved than those following a standard Peierls mechanism. We thus propose a microscopic mechanism where the CDW instability of the BEDT-TTF layer is triggered by the anion sublattice. Our mechanism also emphasizes the key role of the coupling of the BEDT-TTF and anion layers via the hydrogen bond network to set the global modulation. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


  • Electronic transport between graphene layers covalently connected by carbon nanotubes

    Novaes F.D., Rurali R., Ordejón P. ACS Nano; 4 (12): 7596 - 7602. 2010. 10.1021/nn102206n.

    We present a first-principles study of the electronic transport properties of metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotube (CNT) junctions connecting two graphene layers, for different CNT lengths and link structures. Transport is analyzed in terms of the scattering states originated from the π and π* states of the finite-length CNTs, which couple to the graphene states producing resonances in the transmission curves. We find that, for metallic CNTs, the conductance is nearly independent of the tube length, but changes strongly with the link structure, while the opposite occurs for semiconducting CNTs, where the conductance in the tunneling regime is mainly controlled by the tube length and independent of the link structure. The sizable band offset between graphene and the CNTs yields to considerable effects on the transport properties, which cannot be captured using simple empirical models and highlights the need for a first-principles description. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


  • Orbital specific chirality and homochiral self-assembly of achiral molecules induced by charge transfer and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Mugarza A., Lorente N., Ordejón P., Krull C., Stepanow S., Bocquet M.-L., Fraxedas J., Ceballos G., Gambardella P. Physical Review Letters; 105 (11, 115702) 2010. 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.115702.

    We study the electronic mechanisms underlying the induction and propagation of chirality in achiral molecules deposited on surfaces. Combined scanning tunneling microscopy and ab initio electronic structure calculations of Cu-phthalocyanines adsorbed on Ag(100) reveal the formation of chiral molecular orbitals in structurally undistorted molecules. This effect shows that chirality can be manifest exclusively at the electronic level due to asymmetric charge transfer between molecules and substrate. Single molecule chirality correlates with attractive van der Waals interactions, leading to the propagation of chirality at the supramolecular level. Ostwald ripening provides an efficient pathway for complete symmetry breaking and self-assembly of homochiral supramolecular layers. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


  • Real-time TD-DFT simulations in dye sensitized solar cells: The electronic absorption spectrum of alizarin supported on TiO2 nanoclusters

    Sánchez-De-Armas R., Oviedo López J., San-Miguel M.A., Sanz J.F., Ordejón P., Pruneda M. Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation; 6 (9): 2856 - 2865. 2010. 10.1021/ct100289t.

    The structural and electronic properties of the alizarin dye supported on TiO2 nanoclusters have been examined by means of time-dependent density-functional (TD-DFT) calculations performed in the time-domain framework. The calculated electronic absorption spectrum of free alizarin shows a first band centered at 2.67 eV that upon adsorption features a red shift by 0.31 eV, in agreement with both experimental and previous theoretical work. This red shift arises from a relative stabilization of the dye LUMO when adsorbed. To analyze the dependence of the electronic properties of the dye-support couple on the size of metal-oxide nanoparticles, different models of (TiO 2)n nanoclusters have been used (with n = 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 15, and 38). As a conclusion, the minimal model is good enough to theoretically reproduce the main feature in the spectrum (i.e., the energy shift of the main band upon binding to TiO2). However, it fails in creating intermediate states which could play a significant role under real experimental conditions (dynamics of the electronic transfer). Indeed, as the size of the nanocluster grows, the dye LUMO moves from the edge to well inside the conduction band (Ti 3d band). On the other hand, to assess the consistency of the time-domain approach in the case of such systems, conventional (frequency-domain) TD-DFT calculations have been carried out. It is found that, as far as the functional and basis set are equivalent, both approaches lead to similar results. While for small systems the standard TD-DFT is better suited, for medium to large sized systems, the real-time TD-DFT becomes competitive and more efficient. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


2009

  • Optimal strictly localized basis sets for noble metal surfaces

    García-Gil S., García A., Lorente N., Ordejón P. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; 79 (7, 075441) 2009. 10.1103/PhysRevB.79.075441.

    The properties of the (111) surfaces of Cu, Ag, and Au are evaluated using a first-principles approach with strictly localized basis sets. These surfaces present metallic and extended properties that are a priori difficult to describe with a local-basis approach. We explore methodologies to enhance the basis sets of the surface atoms in order to accurately describe surface properties such as surface energies, surface states, and work functions. In this way, the advantages of local-basis computations (namely, efficiency, optimum size scaling, and a natural description of bonding in real space) can be retained, while keeping the accuracy in the description of the properties of the surface at a very good level. © 2009 The American Physical Society.


  • Tunneling spectroscopy in core/shell structured Fe/MgO nanospheres

    Martínez-Boubeta C., Balcells Li., Monty C., Ordejon P., Martínez B. Applied Physics Letters; 94 (6, 062507) 2009. 10.1063/1.3080657.

    We report on tunneling conductance properties of a single Fe island enclosed by an epitaxial MgO shell. The results obtained show clear oscillations in the current-voltage curves that, along with the theoretical modeling, allow determining the electronic density of states of the iron core. Moreover, the correlation of these results with the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity of assemblies of Fe/MgO nanocrystals provides evidence of the Δ1 symmetry-sensitive tunneling across a crystalline magnesia barrier. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.


2008

  • Band bending and quasi-2deg in the metallized β-SiC(001) surface

    Rurali R., Wachowicz E., Hyldgaard P., Ordejón P. Physica Status Solidi - Rapid Research Letters; 2 (5): 218 - 220. 2008. 10.1002/pssr.200802166.

    We study the mechanism leading to the metallization of the β-SiC(001) Si-rich surface induced by hydrogen adsorption. We analyze the effects of band bending and demonstrate the existence of a quasi-2D electron gas, which originates from the donation of electrons from adsorbed hydrogen to bulk conduction states. We also provide a simple model that captures the main features of the results of first-principles calculations, and uncovers the basic physics of the process. © 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


  • The SIESTA method; Developments and applicability

    Artacho E., Anglada E., Diéguez O., Gale J.D., García A., Junquera J., Martin R.M., Ordejón P., Pruneda J.M., Sánchez-Portal D., Soler J.M. Journal of Physics Condensed Matter; 20 (6, 064208) 2008. 10.1088/0953-8984/20/6/064208.

    Recent developments in and around the SIESTA method of first-principles simulation of condensed matter are described and reviewed, with emphasis on (i) the applicability of the method for large and varied systems, (ii) efficient basis sets for the standards of accuracy of density-functional methods, (iii) new implementations, and (iv) extensions beyond ground-state calculations. © 2008 IOP Publishing Ltd.