Nanostructured Materials for Photovoltaic Energy

Group Leader: Mónica Lira-Cantú



  • Back-contact perovskite solar cell fabrication via microsphere lithography

    Deng S., Tan B., Chesman A.S.R., Lu J., McMeekin D.P., Ou Q., Scully A.D., Raga S.R., Rietwyk K.J., Weissbach A., Zhao B., Voelcker N.H., Cheng Y.-B., Lin X., Bach U. Nano Energy; 102 (107695) 2022. 10.1016/j.nanoen.2022.107695.

    Back-contact electrodes for hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells (PSCs) eliminate the parasitic absorption losses caused by the transparent conductive electrodes that are inherent to conventional sandwich-architecture devices. However, the fabrication methods for these unconventional architectures rely heavily on expensive photolithography, which limits scalability. Herein, we present an alternative cost-effective microfabrication technique in which the conventional photolithography process is replaced by microsphere lithography in which a close-packed polystyrene microsphere monolayer acts as the patterning mask for the honeycomb-shaped electrodes. A comprehensive comparison between photolithography and microsphere lithography fabrication techniques was conducted. Using microsphere lithography, we achieve highly efficient devices having a stabilized power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.6%, twice the reported value using photolithography. Microsphere lithography also enabled the fabrication of the largest back-contact PSC to date, having an active area of 0.75 cm2 and a stabilized PCE of 2.44%. © 2022 Elsevier Ltd

  • Can Laminated Carbon Challenge Gold? Toward Universal, Scalable, and Low-Cost Carbon Electrodes for Perovskite Solar Cells

    Sepalage G.A., Weerasinghe H., Rai N., Duffy N.W., Raga S.R., Hora Y., Gao M., Vak D., Chesman A.S.R., Bach U., Simonov A.N. Advanced Materials Technologies; 7 (6, 2101148) 2022. 10.1002/admt.202101148. IF: 7.848

    While perovskite solar cell (PSC) efficiencies are soaring at a laboratory scale, these are most commonly achieved with evaporated gold electrodes, which would present a significant expense in large-scale production. This can be remedied through the use of significantly cheaper carbon electrodes that, in contrast to metals, also do not migrate through the device. To this end, the present work investigates simple-to-prepare aluminum-supported carbon electrodes derived from commercially available, inexpensive materials that can be applied onto various hole-transporting materials and enable photovoltaic performances on par with those provided by gold electrodes. Successful integration of the new carbon-based electrode into flexible devices produced by a roll-to-roll printing technology by both pressing and lamination is demonstrated. However, temperature cycling durability tests reveal that the use of carbon electrodes based on commercial pastes is hindered by incompatibility of adhesive additives with the key components of the PSCs under heating. Resolving this issue, tailor-made graphite electrodes devoid of damaging additives are introduced, which improve the PSC stability under temperature cycling test protocol to the level provided by benchmark gold electrodes. The study highlights current challenges in developing laminated carbon electrodes in PSCs and proposes strategies toward the resolution thereof. © 2021 Wiley-VCH GmbH.

  • Improved performance and stability of perovskite solar modules by interface modulating with graphene oxide crosslinked CsPbBr3quantum dots

    Zhang S., Guo R., Zeng H., Zhao Y., Liu X., You S., Li M., Luo L., Lira-Cantu M., Li L., Liu F., Zheng X., Liao G., Li X. Energy and Environmental Science; 15 (1): 244 - 253. 2022. 10.1039/d1ee01778k. IF: 38.532

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are one of the most prominent photovoltaic technologies. However, PSCs still encounter great challenges of scaling up from laboratorial cells to industrial modules without serious performance loss while maintaining excellent long-term stability, owing to the resistive losses and extra instability factors that scale quadratically with the device area. Here, we manifest a concept of multifunctional interface modulation for highly efficient and stable perovskite solar modules (PSMs). The advisably designed multifunctional interface modulator GO/QD crosslinks the CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots (QDs) on the conductive graphene oxide (GO) surfaces, which significantly improve charge transport and energy band alignment at the perovskite/hole transporting layer interface to reduce the charge transport resistance while passivating the surface defects of the perovskite to inhibit carrier recombination resistive losses. Moreover, the GO/QD interlayer acts as a robust permeation barrier that modulates the undesirable interfacial ion and moisture diffusion. Consequently, we adopt a scalable vacuum flash-assisted solution processing (VASP) method to achieve a certified stabilized power output efficiency of 17.85% (lab-measured champion efficiency of 18.55%) for the mini-modules. The encapsulated PSMs achieve over 90% of their initial efficiency after continuous operation under 1 sun illumination and the damp heat test at 85 °C, respectively. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Ionic Liquid Stabilized Perovskite Solar Modules with Power Conversion Efficiency Exceeding 20%

    Wang Y., Yang Y., Li N., Hu M., Raga S.R., Jiang Y., Wang C., Zhang X.-L., Lira-Cantu M., Huang F., Cheng Y.-B., Lu J. Advanced Functional Materials; 2022. 10.1002/adfm.202204396.

    Metal-halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) exhibit outstanding power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) when fabricated as mm-sized devices, but creation of high-performing large-area modules that are stable on a sufficiently long timescale still presents a significant challenge. Herein, the quality of large-area perovskite film is improved by using ionic liquid additives via forming a new Pb-N bonding between the ionic liquid and Pb2+. This new bond can be modulated by a critical screening of the anion structure of the ionic liquid. The selected ionic liquid effectively reduces the defects of the perovskite films and markedly elongate their carrier lifetimes. As a result, a champion PCE of 24.4% for small-area (0.148 cm2) devices and 20.4% for larger-area (10.0 cm2) modules under AM 1.5G irradiation is achieved. More importantly, the modified devices retain 90% of their peak PCE after aging for 1900 h at 65 ± 5 °C (ISOS-T-1) and 80% after continuous light soaking for 750 h. The non-encapsulated modules maintained 80% of their peak PCE after 1100 h of aging in the air with a relative humidity of 35 ± 5% and temperature of 25 ± 5 °C under dark (ISOS-D-1), showing great potential for future commercialization. © 2022 Wiley-VCH GmbH.

  • Solution Processable Direct Bandgap Copper-Silver-Bismuth Iodide Photovoltaics: Compositional Control of Dimensionality and Optoelectronic Properties

    Pai N., Chatti M., Fürer S.O., Scully A.D., Raga S.R., Rai N., Tan B., Chesman A.S.R., Xu Z., Rietwyk K.J., Reddy S.S., Hora Y., Sepalage G.A., Glück N., Lira-Cantú M., Bach U., Simonov A.N. Advanced Energy Materials; 12 (32, 2201482) 2022. 10.1002/aenm.202201482.

    The search for lead-free alternatives to lead-halide perovskite photovoltaic materials resulted in the discovery of copper(I)-silver(I)-bismuth(III) halides exhibiting promising properties for optoelectronic applications. The present work demonstrates a solution-based synthesis of uniform CuxAgBiI4+x thin films and scrutinizes the effects of x on the phase composition, dimensionality, optoelectronic properties, and photovoltaic performance. Formation of pure 3D CuAgBiI5 at x = 1, 2D Cu2AgBiI6 at x = 2, and a mix of the two at 1 < x < 2 is demonstrated. Despite lower structural dimensionality, Cu2AgBiI6 has broader optical absorption with a direct bandgap of 1.89 ± 0.05 eV, a valence band level at -5.25 eV, improved carrier lifetime, and higher recombination resistance as compared to CuAgBiI5. These differences are mirrored in the power conversion efficiencies of the CuAgBiI5 and Cu2AgBiI6 solar cells under 1 sun of 1.01 ± 0.06% and 2.39 ± 0.05%, respectively. The latter value is the highest reported for this class of materials owing to the favorable film morphology provided by the hot-casting method. Future performance improvements might emerge from the optimization of the Cu2AgBiI6 layer thickness to match the carrier diffusion length of ≈40–50 nm. Nonencapsulated Cu2AgBiI6 solar cells display storage stability over 240 days. © 2022 The Authors. Advanced Energy Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

  • Universal control strategy for anomalous ionic-electronic phenomenology in perovskite solar cells efficiency measurements

    Hernández-Balaguera E., Muñoz-Díaz L., Pereyra C., Lira-Cantú M., Najafi M., Galagan Y. Materials Today Energy; 27 (101031) 2022. 10.1016/j.mtener.2022.101031.

    The unprecedented increase of photovoltaic perovskites performance metrics has been obscured by the puzzling phenomenology underlying the device's anomalous ionic/electronic landscape. Thus, the establishment of a reliable measurement protocol of efficiency measurements, unanimously adopted by the perovskite's community, is indeed necessary to ensure comparability of device performance between different research laboratories. Here, we report a control strategy of ionic-electronic cooperative relaxation phenomena, eliminating the “hysteria around hysteresis”. The procedure, based on mixed engineering strategies, solves the problem that arises from the difficulty of providing steady-state device operation conditions, capturing in turn the anomalous capacitive behavior. From the determination of an optimal scan rate for J–V modeling, we provide an experimental visualization of the interplay between perovskites' ionic and electronic responses. The results of this combined theoretical and experimental study identify key guidelines about assessment procedural of device performance that should be taken into account in future publications to further improve reproducibility in the research field. © 2022 Elsevier Ltd


  • A home for women’s voices

    Kafafi Z., Lira-Cantú M. Nature Energy; 6 (10): 939 - 940. 2021. 10.1038/s41560-021-00924-4. IF: 60.858

    [No abstract available]

  • Additive engineering for stable halide perovskite solar cells

    Pereyra C., Xie H., Lira-Cantu M. Journal of Energy Chemistry; 60: 599 - 634. 2021. 10.1016/j.jechem.2021.01.037. IF: 9.676

    Halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have already demonstrated power conversion efficiencies above 25%, which makes them one of the most attractive photovoltaic technologies. However, one of the main bottlenecks towards their commercialization is their long-term stability, which should exceed the 20-year mark. Additive engineering is an effective pathway for the enhancement of device lifetime. Additives applied as organic or inorganic compounds, improve crystal grain growth enhancing power conversion efficiency. The interaction of their functional groups with the halide perovskite (HP) absorber, as well as with the transport layers, results in defect passivation and ion immobilization improving device performance and stability. In this review, we briefly summarize the different types of additives recently applied in PSC to enhance not only efficiency but also long-term stability. We discuss the different mechanism behind additive engineering and the role of the functional groups of these additives for defect passivation. Special emphasis is given to their effect on the stability of PSCs under environmental conditions such as humidity, atmosphere, light irradiation (UV, visible) or heat, taking into account the recently reported ISOS protocols. We also discuss the relation between deep-defect passivation, non-radiative recombination and device efficiency, as well as the possible relation between shallow-defect passivation, ion immobilization and device operational stability. Finally, insights into the challenge and criteria for additive selection are provided for the further stability enhancement of PSCs. © 2021 Science Press

  • Balancing Charge Extraction for Efficient Back-Contact Perovskite Solar Cells by Using an Embedded Mesoscopic Architecture

    Lin X., Lu J., Raga S.R., McMeekin D.P., Ou Q., Scully A.D., Tan B., Chesman A.S.R., Deng S., Zhao B., Cheng Y.-B., Bach U. Advanced Energy Materials; 11 (21, 2100053) 2021. 10.1002/aenm.202100053. IF: 29.368

    As the performance of organic–inorganic halide perovskite solar cells approaches their practical limits, the use of back-contact architectures, which eliminate parasitic light absorption, provides an effective route toward higher device efficiencies. However, a poor understanding of the underlying device physics has limited further performance improvements. Here a mesoporous charge-transporting layer is introduced into quasi-interdigitated back-contact perovskite devices and the charge extraction behavior with an increased interfacial contact area is studied. The results show that the incorporation of a thin mesoporous titanium dioxide layer significantly shortens the charge-transfer lifetime and results in more efficient and balanced charge extraction dynamics. A high short-circuit current density of 21.3 mA cm–2 is achieved using a polycrystalline perovskite layer on a mesoscopic quasi-interdigitated back-contact electrode, a record for this type of device architecture. © 2021 Wiley-VCH GmbH

  • Decoupling the effects of defects on efficiency and stability through phosphonates in stable halide perovskite solar cells

    Xie H., Wang Z., Chen Z., Pereyra C., Pols M., Gałkowski K., Anaya M., Fu S., Jia X., Tang P., Kubicki D.J., Agarwalla A., Kim H.-S., Prochowicz D., Borrisé X., Bonn M., Bao C., Sun X., Zakeeruddin S.M., Emsley L., Arbiol J., Gao F., Fu F., Wang H.I., Tielrooij K.-J., Stranks S.D., Tao S., Grätzel M., Hagfeldt A., Lira-Cantu M. Joule; 5 (5): 1246 - 1266. 2021. 10.1016/j.joule.2021.04.003. IF: 41.248

    Understanding defects is of paramount importance for the development of stable halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs). However, isolating their distinctive effects on device efficiency and stability is currently a challenge. We report that adding the organic molecule 3-phosphonopropionic acid (H3pp) to the halide perovskite results in unchanged overall optoelectronic performance while having a tremendous effect on device stability. We obtained PSCs with ∼21% efficiency that retain ∼100% of the initial efficiency after 1,000 h at the maximum power point under simulated AM1.5G illumination. The strong interaction between the perovskite and the H3pp molecule through two types of hydrogen bonds (H…I and O…H) leads to shallow point defect passivation that has a significant effect on device stability but not on the non-radiative recombination and device efficiency. We expect that our work will have important implications for the current understanding and advancement of operational PSCs. © 2021 Elsevier Inc.

  • Functionalized carbon dots on TiO2 for perovskite photovoltaics and stable photoanodes for water splitting

    Ansón-Casaos A., Hernández-Ferrer J., Vallan L., Xie H., Lira-Cantú M., Benito A.M., Maser W.K. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy; 46 (22): 12180 - 12191. 2021. 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2020.03.077. IF: 5.816

    Various types of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles, often called carbon dots (CDs), are synthesized by different polycondensation methods: microwave irradiation, hydrothermal conditions or solution chemistry at ambient temperature with subsequent chemical functionalization. The CDs are deposited on TiO2 films to be probed as electron transport layers in perovskite photovoltaics and the anode for photoelectrochemical water splitting. Nitrogen CDs, which do not contain oxygen, lead to an increase of around 50 mV in the open circuit voltage of perovskite solar cells. All the CD types produce an improved photocurrent in water splitting, particularly CDs that are functionalized with thiol groups and butyl chains. It is demonstrated that the modified electrode is stable under continuous operation. Other electrochemical characteristics of the electrode, such as the voltammogram shape, onset potentials and open circuit potentials, remain nearly unchanged upon the deposition of CDs. Only the incident photon to current conversion efficiency improves clearly, extending the absorption range by around 20 nm towards longer wavelengths. This study provides new data about mechanisms and electrode arrangements for improving the performance of n-type semiconductors in photovoltaic cells and photoelectrochemical hydrogen production. © 2020 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC

  • Stress-mediated solution deposition method to stabilize ferroelectric BiFe1-xCrxO3 perovskite thin films with narrow bandgaps

    Jiménez R., Ricote J., Bretos I., Jiménez Riobóo R.J., Mompean F., Ruiz A., Xie H., Lira-Cantú M., Calzada M.L. Journal of the European Ceramic Society; 41 (6): 3404 - 3415. 2021. 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2020.12.042. IF: 5.302

    Ferroelectric oxides with low bandgaps are mainly based on the BiFeO3 perovskite upon the partial substitution of iron with different cations. However, the structural stability of many of these perovskites is only possible by their processing at high pressures (HP, >1GPa) and high temperatures (HT, >700ºC). Preparation methods under these severe conditions are accessible to powders and bulk ceramics. However, transferring these conditions to the fabrication of thin films is a challenge, thus limiting their use in applications. Here, a chemical solution deposition method is devised, which overcomes many of these restrictions. It is based on the application of an external compressive-stress to the film sample during the thermal treatment required for the film crystallization, promoting the formation and stabilization of these HP perovskites. We demonstrate the concept on BiFe1-xCrxO3 (BFCO) thin films deposited on SrTiO3 (STO) substrates and with large chromium contents. The resulting BFCO perovskite films show narrow bandgaps (Eg∼2.57 eV) and an excellent ferroelectric response (remnant polarization, PR∼ 40 μC cm−2). The polarized thin films under illumination present a large out-put power of ∼6.4 μW cm−2, demonstrating their potential for using in self-powered multifunctional devices. This stress-mediated solution deposition method can be extended to other perovskite films which are unviable under conventional deposition methods. © 2021 Elsevier Ltd

  • The impact of spiro-OMeTAD photodoping on the reversible light-induced transients of perovskite solar cells

    Tan B., Raga S.R., Rietwyk K.J., Lu J., Fürer S.O., Griffith J.C., Cheng Y.-B., Bach U. Nano Energy; 82 (105658) 2021. 10.1016/j.nanoen.2020.105658. IF: 17.881

    Hole transporting materials (HTMs) play essential roles in facilitating hole extraction and suppressing recombination in lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs). High levels of p-doping in HTMs is necessary for achieving high device performance, attributed to an increased electrical conductivity. In this work, we provide evidences that the poor performance of PSCs with low levels of doping (i.e., 4 mol% spiro-OMeTAD+) in spiro-OMeTAD is mainly caused by the presence of a Schottky barrier at the perovskite/spiro-OMeTAD interface, hampering hole injection. Under continuous illumination at open-circuit condition, the barrier gradually diminishes, increasing the PSC power conversion efficiency by 70-fold after 7 h. This process is completely reversible, returning to the initial poor performance after dark storage. We attribute this improvement in performance to a gradual photodoping of spiro-OMeTAD, triggered by the transfer of photogenerated holes and mediated by the slow migration of halide anions from perovskite to compensate the newly formed spiro-OMeTAD+. In-situ parallel analyses with impedance spectroscopy (IS) and photoluminescence are employed to gain insights into the charge dynamics along with light soaking. We find that the Schottky barrier resistance overlays with the recombination signal at the high frequency arc of IS, having important implications for the IS data analysis for PSCs. The work elucidates a major mechanism causing the slow efficiency variations during light/dark cycling, commonly observed in PSCs, which complicates the determination of long-term stability. © 2021 Elsevier Ltd

  • Unraveling the Key Relationship Between Perovskite Capacitive Memory, Long Timescale Cooperative Relaxation Phenomena, and Anomalous J–V Hysteresis

    Hernández-Balaguera E., del Pozo G., Arredondo B., Romero B., Pereyra C., Xie H., Lira-Cantú M. Solar RRL; 5 (4, 2000707) 2021. 10.1002/solr.202000707. IF: 8.582

    Capacitive response at long time scales seems to remain an elusive feature in the analysis of the electrical properties of perovskite-based solar cells. It belongs to one of the critical anomalous effects that arises from the characteristic phenomenology of this type of emerging photovoltaic devices. Thereby, accurately deducing key capacitance feature of new light harvesting perovskites from electrical measurements represents a significant challenge regarding the interpretation of physical processes and the control of undesired mechanisms, such as slow dynamic effects and/or current density–voltage (J–V) hysteresis. Herein, it is shown that long timescale mechanisms that give rise to hysteresis in stable and high-efficiency quadruple-cation perovskites are not due to a classical capacitive behavior in the sense of ideal charge accumulation processes. Instead, it is a phenomenological consequence of slow memory-based capacitive currents and the underlying cooperative relaxations. A fractional dynamics approach, based on the idea of capacitance distribution in perovskite devices, reliably models the slow transient phenomena and the consequent scan-rate- and bias-dependent hysteresis. Observable for a wide variety of photovoltaic halide perovskites, distributed capacitive effects are rather universal anomalous phenomena, which can be related to the long-time electrical response and hysteresis. © 2021 Wiley-VCH GmbH


  • An Interlaboratory Study on the Stability of All-Printable Hole Transport Material–Free Perovskite Solar Cells

    De Rossi F., Barbé J., Tanenbaum D.M., Cinà L., Castriotta L.A., Stoichkov V., Wei Z., Tsoi W.C., Kettle J., Sadula A., Chircop J., Azzopardi B., Xie H., Di Carlo A., Lira-Cantú M., Katz E.A., Watson T.M., Brunetti F. Energy Technology; 8 (12, 2000134) 2020. 10.1002/ente.202000134. IF: 3.404

    Comparisons between different laboratories on long-term stability analyses of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is still lacking in the literature. This work presents the results of an interlaboratory study conducted between five laboratories from four countries. Carbon-based PSCs are prepared by screen printing, encapsulated, and sent to different laboratories across Europe to assess their stability by the application of three ISOS aging protocols: (a) in the dark (ISOS-D), (b) under simulated sunlight (ISOS-L), and (c) outdoors (ISOS-O). Over 1000 h stability is reported for devices in the dark, both at room temperature and at 65 °C. Under continuous illumination at open circuit, cells survive only for few hours, although they recover after being stored in the dark. Better stability is observed for cells biased at maximum power point under illumination. Finally, devices operate in outdoors for 30 days, with minor degradation, in two different locations (Barcelona, Spain and Paola, Malta). The findings demonstrate that open-circuit conditions are too severe for stability assessment and that the diurnal variation of the photovoltaic parameters reveals performance to be strongly limited by the fill factor, in the central hours of the day, due to the high series resistance of the carbon electrode. © 2020 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  • Carbon-based perovskite solar cells by screen printing with preheating

    Martinez V.C., Xie H., Mingorance A., Pereyra C., Narymany A., Gómez M.M. Journal of Physics: Conference Series; 1433 (1, 012009) 2020. 10.1088/1742-6596/1433/1/012009. IF: 0.000

    Carbon-based perovskite solar cells were manufactured by the screen-printing method using a triple mesoscopic layer of TiO2, ZrO2 and carbon. The perovskite solution was infiltrated at the TiO2/ZrO2 porous interface through the printed carbon layer on top of the ZrO2. Using a simple preheating of the substrates and the perovskite solution, a film deposited in air can be obtained. Using this method, an air-processed CPSC made under a humid atmosphere with 55% RH achieved a PCE of 10.35%. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • Consensus statement for stability assessment and reporting for perovskite photovoltaics based on ISOS procedures

    Khenkin M.V., Katz E.A., Abate A., Bardizza G., Berry J.J., Brabec C., Brunetti F., Bulović V., Burlingame Q., Di Carlo A., Cheacharoen R., Cheng Y.-B., Colsmann A., Cros S., Domanski K., Dusza M., Fell C.J., Forrest S.R., Galagan Y., Di Girolamo D., Grätzel M., Hagfeldt A., von Hauff E., Hoppe H., Kettle J., Köbler H., Leite M.S., Liu S.F., Loo Y.-L., Luther J.M., Ma C.-Q., Madsen M., Manceau M., Matheron M., McGehee M., Meitzner R., Nazeeruddin M.K., Nogueira A.F., Odabaşı Ç., Osherov A., Park N.-G., Reese M.O., De Rossi F., Saliba M., Schubert U.S., Snaith H.J., Stranks S.D., Tress W., Troshin P.A., Turkovic V., Veenstra S., Visoly-Fisher I., Walsh A., Watson T., Xie H., Yıldırım R., Zakeeruddin S.M., Zhu K., Lira-Cantu M. Nature Energy; 5 (1): 35 - 49. 2020. 10.1038/s41560-019-0529-5. IF: 46.495

    Improving the long-term stability of perovskite solar cells is critical to the deployment of this technology. Despite the great emphasis laid on stability-related investigations, publications lack consistency in experimental procedures and parameters reported. It is therefore challenging to reproduce and compare results and thereby develop a deep understanding of degradation mechanisms. Here, we report a consensus between researchers in the field on procedures for testing perovskite solar cell stability, which are based on the International Summit on Organic Photovoltaic Stability (ISOS) protocols. We propose additional procedures to account for properties specific to PSCs such as ion redistribution under electric fields, reversible degradation and to distinguish ambient-induced degradation from other stress factors. These protocols are not intended as a replacement of the existing qualification standards, but rather they aim to unify the stability assessment and to understand failure modes. Finally, we identify key procedural information which we suggest reporting in publications to improve reproducibility and enable large data set analysis. © 2020, The Author(s).

  • Effects of the methylammonium ion substitution by 5-ammoniumvaleric acid in lead trihalide perovskite solar cells: a combined experimental and theoretical investigation

    Urzúa-Leiva R., Narymany Shandy A., Xie H., Lira-Cantú M., Cárdenas-Jirón G. New Journal of Chemistry; 44 (34): 14642 - 14649. 2020. 10.1039/d0nj02748k. IF: 3.288

    In the last decade, lead triiodide perovskite (APbI3) (A: organic cation) solar cells (PSCs) have been broadly studied due to their promising features related to the low cost, easy manufacturing process, and stability. Strategies to improve the device stability include the application of techniques such as compositional engineering of the cation of these halide perovskites, but it is still a complex task to find the right balance between the stability and power conversion efficiency of materials and complete devices. In this work, we performed a combined study of five samples of [5-AVA(1−x)MAx]PbI3(5-AVA: ammonium valeric acid and MA: methylammonium) withx= 1.0, 0.75, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.0, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-VIS spectroscopy measurements in combination with periodic density functional theory (DFT) based calculations. Our samples showed an optical bandgap of 1.58 eV and the coexistence of the two phases as observed by XRD analyses. The theoretical results of the bandgaps for the no mixed phases (x= 1.0 andx= 0.0) show good agreement with the experiment, obtaining bandgap values overestimated by 0.18 eV and 0.33 eV, respectively. A direct relation between the number of 5-AVA ions in the samples and the stability of the phases was theoretically found and proved through the increment observed in the bandgap and the cohesive energy. We proposed a compositional strategy for perovskites [5-AVA(1−x)MAx]PbI3withxvalues of at most 0.5, based on the small blue-shift and the low absorbance reduction of the spectrum curve, added to the small phase stabilization found. © The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 2020.

  • Multi-component engineering to enable long-term operational stability of perovskite solar cells

    Haibing Xie, Monica Lira-Cantu Journal of Physics Energy; 2 (3, 24008) 2020. 10.1088/2515-7655/ab8278. IF: 0.000

    Open Access

  • Recent advances in fiber-shaped and planar-shaped textile solar cells

    Hatamvand M., Kamrani E., Lira-Cantú M., Madsen M., Patil B.R., Vivo P., Mehmood M.S., Numan A., Ahmed I., Zhan Y. Nano Energy; 71 (104609) 2020. 10.1016/j.nanoen.2020.104609. IF: 16.602

    During the last few years, textile solar cells with planar and fiber-shaped configurations have attracted enormous research interest. These flexible-type solar cells have a huge potential applicability in self-powered and battery-less electronics, which will impact many sectors, and particularly the Internet of Things. Textile solar cells are lightweight, super-flexible, formable, and foldable. Thus, they could be ideal power-harvester alternatives to common flexible solar cells required in smart textiles, electronic textiles, and wearable electronic devices. This review presents a brief overview on fiber-shaped and planar-shaped solar cells, and it introduces the most recent research reports on the different types of textile solar cells, including details on their fabrication techniques. It also addresses the current challenges and limitations of their technology development, and the encountered issues for their future application and integration in novel devices. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd


  • Boosting Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation of Hematite in Acidic Electrolytes by Surface State Modification

    Tang P.-Y., Han L.-J., Hegner F.S., Paciok P., Biset-Peiró M., Du H.-C., Wei X.-K., Jin L., Xie H.-B., Shi Q., Andreu T., Lira-Cantú M., Heggen M., Dunin-Borkowski R.E., López N., Galán-Mascarós J.R., Morante J.R., Arbiol J. Advanced Energy Materials; 9 (34, 1901836) 2019. 10.1002/aenm.201901836. IF: 24.884

    State-of-the-art water-oxidation catalysts (WOCs) in acidic electrolytes usually contain expensive noble metals such as ruthenium and iridium. However, they too expensive to be implemented broadly in semiconductor photoanodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting devices. Here, an Earth-abundant CoFe Prussian blue analogue (CoFe-PBA) is incorporated with core–shell Fe2O3/Fe2TiO5 type II heterojunction nanowires as composite photoanodes for PEC water splitting. Those deliver a high photocurrent of 1.25 mA cm−2 at 1.23 V versus reversible reference electrode in acidic electrolytes (pH = 1). The enhancement arises from the synergic behavior between the successive decoration of the hematite surface with nanolayers of Fe2TiO5 and then, CoFe-PBA. The underlying physical mechanism of performance enhancement through formation of the Fe2O3/Fe2TiO5/CoFe-PBA heterostructure reveals that the surface states’ electronic levels of hematite are modified such that an interfacial charge transfer becomes kinetically favorable. These findings open new pathways for the future design of cheap and efficient hematite-based photoanodes in acidic electrolytes. © 2019 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  • Giant bulk photovoltaic effect in solar cell architectures with ultra-wide bandgap Ga2O3 transparent conducting electrodes

    Pérez-Tomás A., Chikoidze E., Dumont Y., Jennings M.R., Russell S.O., Vales-Castro P., Catalan G., Lira-Cantú M., Ton –That C., Teherani F.H., Sandana V.E., Bove P., Rogers D.J. Materials Today Energy; 14 (100350) 2019. 10.1016/j.mtener.2019.100350. IF: 0.000

    The use of ultra-wide bandgap transparent conducting beta gallium oxide (β-Ga2O3) thin films as electrodes in ferroelectric solar cells is reported. In a new material structure for energy applications, we report a solar cell structure (a light absorber sandwiched in between two electrodes - one of them - transparent) which is not constrained by the Shockley–Queisser limit for open-circuit voltage (Voc) under typical indoor light. The solar blindness of the electrode enables a record-breaking bulk photovoltaic effect (BPE) with white light illumination (general use indoor light). This work opens up the perspective of ferroelectric photovoltaics which are not subject to the Shockley-Queisser limit by bringing into scene solar-blind conducting oxides. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

  • Impact of P3HT materials properties and layer architecture on OPV device stability

    Meitzner R., Faber T., Alam S., Amand A., Roesch R., Büttner M., Herrmann-Westendorf F., Presselt M., Ciammaruchi L., Visoly-Fisher I., Veenstra S., Diaz de Zerio A., Xu X., Wang E., Müller C., Troshin P., Hager M.D., Köhn S., Dusza M., Krassas M., Züfle S., Kymakis E., Katz E.A., Berson S., Granek F., Manceau M., Brunetti F., Polino G., Schubert U.S., Lira-Cantu M., Hoppe H. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells; 202 (110151) 2019. 10.1016/j.solmat.2019.110151. IF: 6.019

    We report a cooperative study conducted between different laboratories to investigate organic solar cell degradation with respect to P3HT material properties and different solar cell architectures. Various batches of P3HT were collected from different suppliers reflecting commercial availability as well as properties variability. Among the materials properties explicitly considered were the molar mass, dispersity, regio-regularity, impurities by trace metals and intrinsic doping evaluated from radical concentrations. Each of the participating laboratories contributing test devices applied their own layer stack, i.e. their own device architecture and layout. This variation was appreciated as another parameter for evaluation. Even though a large amount of devices failed due to extrinsic degradation effects, indeed, some materials properties were found to be more important than others for obtaining long lifetimes and high stability of P3HT-based polymer solar cells. © 2019

  • PbZrTiO 3 ferroelectric oxide as an electron extraction material for stable halide perovskite solar cells

    Pérez-Tomas A., Xie H., Wang Z., Kim H.-S., Shirley I., Turren-Cruz S.-H., Morales-Melgares A., Saliba B., Tanenbaum D., Saliba M., Zakeeruddin S.M., Gratzel M., Hagfeldt A., Lira-Cantu M. Sustainable Energy and Fuels; 3 (2): 382 - 389. 2019. 10.1039/c8se00451j. IF: 4.912

    State-of-the-art halide perovskite solar cells employ semiconductor oxides as electron transport materials. Defects in these oxides, such as oxygen vacancies (O vac ), act as recombination centres and, in air and UV light, reduce the stability of the solar cell. Under the same conditions, the PbZrTiO 3 ferroelectric oxide employs O vac for the creation of defect-dipoles responsible for photo-carrier separation and current transport, evading device degradation. We report the application of PbZrTiO 3 as the electron extraction material in triple cation halide perovskite solar cells. The application of a bias voltage (poling) up to 2 V, under UV light, is a critical step to induce charge transport in the ferroelectric oxide. Champion cells result in power conversion efficiencies of ∼11% after poling. Stability analysis, carried out at 1-sun AM 1.5 G, including UV light in air for unencapsulated devices, shows negligible degradation for hours. Our experiments indicate the effect of ferroelectricity, however alternative conducting mechanisms affected by the accumulation of charges or the migration of ions (or the combination of them) cannot be ruled out. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, the application of a ferroelectric oxide as an electron extraction material in efficient and stable PSCs. These findings are also a step forward in the development of next generation ferroelectric oxide-based electronic and optoelectronic devices. © 2019 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Towards Oxide Electronics: a Roadmap

    Coll M., Fontcuberta J., Althammer M., Bibes M., Boschker H., Calleja A., Cheng G., Cuoco M., Dittmann R., Dkhil B., El Baggari I., Fanciulli M., Fina I., Fortunato E., Frontera C., Fujita S., Garcia V., Goennenwein S.T.B., Granqvist C.-G., Grollier J., Gross R., Hagfeldt A., Herranz G., Hono K., Houwman E., Huijben M., Kalaboukhov A., Keeble D.J., Koster G., Kourkoutis L.F., Levy J., Lira-Cantu M., MacManus-Driscoll J.L., Mannhart J., Martins R., Menzel S., Mikolajick T., Napari M., Nguyen M.D., Niklasson G., Paillard C., Panigrahi S., Rijnders G., Sánchez F., Sanchis P., Sanna S., Schlom D.G., Schroeder U., Shen K.M., Siemon A., Spreitzer M., Sukegawa H., Tamayo R., van den Brink J., Pryds N., Granozio F.M. Applied Surface Science; 482: 1 - 93. 2019. 10.1016/j.apsusc.2019.03.312. IF: 5.155

    [No abstract available]


  • A Solar Transistor and Photoferroelectric Memory

    Pérez-Tomás A., Lima A., Billon Q., Shirley I., Catalan G., Lira-Cantú M. Advanced Functional Materials; 28 (17, 1707099) 2018. 10.1002/adfm.201707099. IF: 13.325

    This study presents a new self-powered electronic transistor concept “the solar transistor.” The transistor effect is enabled by the functional integration of a ferroelectric-oxide thin film and an organic bulk heterojunction. The organic heterojunction efficiently harvests photon energy and splits photogenerated excitons into free electron and holes, and the ferroelectric film acts as a switchable electron transport layer with tuneable conduction band offsets that depend on its polarization state. This results in the device photoconductivity modulation. All this (i.e., carrier extraction and poling) is achieved with only two sandwiched electrodes and therefore, with the role of the gating electrode being taken by light. The two-terminal solar-powered phototransistor (or solaristor) thus has the added advantages of a compact photodiode architecture in addition to the nonvolatile functionality of a ferroelectric memory that is written by voltage and nondestructively read by light. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  • Interfacial Engineering of Metal Oxides for Highly Stable Halide Perovskite Solar Cells

    Mingorance A., Xie H., Kim H.-S., Wang Z., Balsells M., Morales-Melgares A., Domingo N., Kazuteru N., Tress W., Fraxedas J., Vlachopoulos N., Hagfeldt A., Lira-Cantu M. Advanced Materials Interfaces; 5 (22, 1800367) 2018. 10.1002/admi.201800367. IF: 4.834

    Oxides employed in halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have already demonstrated to deliver enhanced stability, low cost, and the ease of fabrication required for the commercialization of the technology. The most stable PSCs configuration, the carbon-based hole transport layer-free PSC (HTL-free PSC), has demonstrated a stability of more than one year of continuous operation partially due to the dual presence of insulating oxide scaffolds and conductive oxides. Despite these advances, the stability of PSCs is still a concern and a strong limiting factor for their industrial implementation. The engineering of oxide interfaces functionalized with molecules (like self-assembly monolayers) or polymers results in the passivation of defects (traps), providing numerous advantages such as the elimination of hysteresis and the enhancement of solar cell efficiency. But most important is the beneficial effect of interfacial engineering on the lifetime and stability of PSCs. In this work, the authors provide a brief insight into the recent developments reported on the surface functionalization of oxide interfaces in PSCs with emphasis on the effect of device stability. This paper also discusses the different binding modes, their effect on defect passivation, band alignment or dipole formation, and how these parameters influence device lifetime. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  • Reconsidering figures of merit for performance and stability of perovskite photovoltaics

    Khenkin M.V., Anoop K.M., Visoly-Fisher I., Galagan Y., Di Giacomo F., Patil B.R., Sherafatipour G., Turkovic V., Rubahn H.-G., Madsen M., Merckx T., Uytterhoeven G., Bastos J.P.A., Aernouts T., Brunetti F., Lira-Cantu M., Katz E.A. Energy and Environmental Science; 11 (4): 739 - 743. 2018. 10.1039/c7ee02956j. IF: 30.067

    The development of hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) that combine high performance and operational stability is vital for implementing this technology. Recently, reversible improvement and degradation of PSC efficiency have been reported under illumination-darkness cycling. Quantifying the performance and stability of cells exhibiting significant diurnal performance variations is challenging. We report the outdoor stability measurements of two types of devices showing either reversible photo-degradation or reversible efficiency improvement under sunlight. Instead of the initial (or stabilized) efficiency and T80 as the figures of merit for the performance and stability of such devices, we propose using the value of the energy output generated during the first day of exposure and the time needed to reach its 20% drop, respectively. The latter accounts for both the long-term irreversible degradation and the reversible diurnal efficiency variation and does not depend on the type of process prevailing in a given perovskite cell. © 2018 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Wide and ultra-wide bandgap oxides: Where paradigm-shift photovoltaics meets transparent power electronics

    Pérez-Tomás A., Chikoidze E., Jennings M.R., Russell S.A.O., Teherani F.H., Bove P., Sandana E.V., Rogers D.J. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering; 10533 ( 105331Q) 2018. 10.1117/12.2302576. IF: 0.000

    Oxides represent the largest family of wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductors and also offer a huge potential range of complementary magnetic and electronic properties, such as ferromagnetism, ferroelectricity, antiferroelectricity and high-temperature superconductivity. Here, we review our integration of WBG and ultra WBG semiconductor oxides into different solar cells architectures where they have the role of transparent conductive electrodes and/or barriers bringing unique functionalities into the structure such above bandgap voltages or switchable interfaces. We also give an overview of the state-of-the-art and perspectives for the emerging semiconductor β- Ga2O3, which is widely forecast to herald the next generation of power electronic converters because of the combination of an UWBG with the capacity to conduct electricity. This opens unprecedented possibilities for the monolithic integration in solar cells of both self-powered logic and power electronics functionalities. Therefore, WBG and UWBG oxides have enormous promise to become key enabling technologies for the zero emissions smart integration of the internet of things. © Copyright 2018 SPIE.


  • Effect of cs-incorporated NiOx on the performance of perovskite solar cells

    Kim H.-S., Seo J.-Y., Xie H., Lira-Cantu M., Zakeeruddin S.M., Gratzel M., Hagfeldt A. ACS Omega; 2 (12): 9074 - 9079. 2017. 10.1021/acsomega.7b01179.

    The effect of Cs-incorporated NiOx on perovskite solar cells with an inverted structure was investigated, where NiOx and PCBM were used as selective contacts for holes and electrons, respectively. It was found that the generation of an Ni phase in an NiOx layer was significantly suppressed by employing cesium. Furthermore, Cs-incorporated NiOx enabled holes to be efficiently separated at the interface, showing the improved photoluminescent quenching and thus generating higher short-circuit current. The effect of Cs incorporation was also prominent in the inhibition of recombination. The recombination resistance of Cs-incorporated NiOx was noticeably increased by more than three-fold near the maximum power point leading to a higher fill factor of 0.78 and consequently a higher power conversion efficiency of 17.2% for the device employing Cs-incorporated NiOx. © 2017 American Chemical Society

  • Facile and low cost oxidative conversion of MoS2 in α-MoO3: Synthesis, characterization and application

    Bortoti A.A., Gavanski A.D.F., Velazquez Y.R., Galli A., de Castro E.G. Journal of Solid State Chemistry; 252: 111 - 118. 2017. 10.1016/j.jssc.2017.05.006. IF: 2.299

    This study describes a facile low cost route to synthesize the α-MoO3 through a conversion of the precursor MoS2 in oxidant media. The structure and morphology of the α-MoO3 were studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that α-MoO3 was obtained with reduced size, high purity, strongly-preferred orientation and structural defects, which ensures versatility and multifunctionality to this sample. For the purpose of applications, α-MoO3 was successfully employed in inverted organic solar cells devices as a possible alternative to the PEDOT:PSS in the hole transportation layer. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

  • Functional oxide as an extreme high-k dielectric towards 4H-SiC MOSFET incorporation

    Russell S.A.O., Jennings M.R., Dai T., Li F., Hamilton D.P., Fisher C.A., Sharma Y.K., Mawby P.A., Pérez-Tomás A. Materials Science Forum; 897 MSF: 155 - 158. 2017. 10.4028/ IF: 0.399

    MOS Capacitors are demonstrated on 4H-SiC using an octahedral ABO3 ferroic thin-film as a dielectric prepared on several buffer layers. Five samples were prepared: ABO3 on SiC, ABO3 on SiC with a SiO2 buffer (10 nm and 40 nm) and ABO3 on SiC with an Al2O3 buffer (10nm and 40 nm). Depending on the buffer material the oxide forms in either the pyrochlore or perovskite phase. A better lattice match with the Al2O3 buffer yields a perovskite phase with internal switchable dipoles. Hysteresis polarization-voltage loops show an oxide capacitance of ~ 0.2 μF/cm2 in the accumulation region indicating a dielectric constant of ~120. © 2017 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  • Heteroepitaxial Beta-Ga2O3 on 4H-SiC for an FET with Reduced Self Heating

    Russell S.A.O., Perez-Tomas A., McConville C.F., Fisher C.A., Hamilton D.P., Mawby P.A., Jennings M.R. IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society; 5 (4, 7932063): 256 - 261. 2017. 10.1109/JEDS.2017.2706321. IF: 3.141

    A method to improve thermal management of ${\beta }$ -Ga2O3 FETs is demonstrated here via simulation of epitaxial growth on a 4H-SiC substrate. Using a recently published device as a model, the reduction achieved in self-heating allows the device to be driven at higher gate voltages and increases the overall performance. For the same operating parameters an 18% increase in peak drain current and 15% reduction in lattice temperature are observed. Device dimensions may be substantially reduced without detriment to performance and normally off operation may be achieved. © 2013 IEEE.

  • High-Temperature Electrical and Thermal Aging Performance and Application Considerations for SiC Power DMOSFETs

    Hamilton D.P., Jennings M.R., Perez-Tomas A., Russell S.A.O., Hindmarsh S.A., Fisher C.A., Mawby P.A. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics; 32 (10, 7776925): 7967 - 7979. 2017. 10.1109/TPEL.2016.2636743. IF: 7.151

    The temperature dependence and stability of three different commercially-available unpackaged SiC Dmosfets have been measured. On-state resistances increased to 6 or 7 times their room temperature values at 350 °C. Threshold voltages almost doubled after tens of minutes of positive gate voltage stressing at 300 °C, but approached their original values again after only one or two minutes of negative gate bias stressing. Fortunately, the change in drain current due to these threshold instabilities was almost negligible. However, the threshold approaches zero volts at high temperatures after a high temperature negative gate bias stress. The zero gate bias leakage is low until the threshold voltage reduces to approximately 150 mV, where-after the leakage increases exponentially. Thermal aging tests demonstrated a sudden change from linear to nonlinear output characteristics after 24-100 h air storage at 300 °C and after 570-1000 h in N2 atmosphere. We attribute this to nickel oxide growth on the drain contact metallization which forms a heterojunction p-n diode with the SiC substrate. It was determined that these state-of-the-art SiC mosfet devices may be operated in real applications at temperatures far exceeding their rated operating temperatures. © 1986-2012 IEEE.

  • Incorporation of Counter Ions in Organic Molecules: New Strategy in Developing Dopant-Free Hole Transport Materials for Efficient Mixed-Ion Perovskite Solar Cells

    Zhang J., Xu B., Yang L., Mingorance A., Ruan C., Hua Y., Wang L., Vlachopoulos N., Lira-Cantú M., Boschloo G., Hagfeldt A., Sun L., Johansson E.M.J. Advanced Energy Materials; 7 (14) 2017. 10.1002/aenm.201602736. IF: 16.721

    Hole transport matertial (HTM) as charge selective layer in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) plays an important role in achieving high power conversion efficiency (PCE). It is known that the dopants and additives are necessary in the HTM in order to improve the hole conductivity of the HTM as well as to obtain high efficiency in PSCs, but the additives can potentially induce device instability and poor device reproducibility. In this work a new strategy to design dopant-free HTMs has been presented by modifying the HTM to include charged moieties which are accompanied with counter ions. The device based on this ionic HTM X44 dos not need any additional doping and the device shows an impressive PCE of 16.2%. Detailed characterization suggests that the incorporated counter ions in X44 can significantly affect the hole conductivity and the homogeneity of the formed HTM thin film. The superior photovoltaic performance for X44 is attributed to both efficient hole transport and effective interfacial hole transfer in the solar cell device. This work provides important insights as regards the future design of new and efficient dopant free HTMs for photovotaics or other optoelectronic applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  • P-type beta-gallium oxide: A new perspective for power and optoelectronic devices

    Chikoidze E., Fellous A., Perez-Tomas A., Sauthier G., Tchelidze T., Ton-That C., Than Huynh T., Phillips M., Russell S., Jennings M., Berini B., Jomard F., Dumont Y. Materials Today Physics; 3: 118 - 126. 2017. 10.1016/j.mtphys.2017.10.002.

    Wide-bandgap semiconductors (WBG) are expected to be applied to solid-state lighting and power devices, supporting a future energy-saving society. Here we present evidence of p-type conduction in the undoped WBG β-Ga2O3. Hole conduction, established by Hall and Seebeck measurements, is consistent with findings from photoemission and cathodoluminescence spectroscopies. The ionization energy of the acceptor level was measured to be 1.1eV above the valence band edge. The gallium vacancy was identified as a possible acceptor candidate based on thermodynamic equilibrium Ga2O3 (crystal) – O2 (gas) system calculations (Kroger theory) which revealed a window without oxygen vacancy compensation. The possibility of fabricating large diameter wafers of β-Ga2O3 of p and n type nature, provides new avenues for high power and deep UV-optoelectronic devices.

  • Perovskite solar cells: Stability lies at interfaces

    Lira-Cantú M. Nature Energy; 2 (7, 17115) 2017. 10.1038/nenergy.2017.115. IF: 9.086

    [No abstract available]

  • Physical characterisation of 3C-SiC(001)/SiO2 interface using XPS

    Li F., Vavasour O., Walker M., Martin D.M., Sharma Y., Russell S., Jennings M., Pérez-Tomás A., Mawby P.A. Materials Science Forum; 897 MSF: 151 - 154. 2017. 10.4028/ IF: 0.399

    Normally-on MOSFETs were fabricated on 3C-SiC epilayers (Si face) using high temperature (1300 °C) wet oxidation. XPS analysis found little carbon at the MOS interface yet the channel mobility (60 cm2/V.s) is considerably low. Si suboxides (SiOx, x<2) exist at the wet oxidised 3C-SiC/SiO2 interface, which may act as interface traps and degrade the conduction performance. © 2017 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


  • 3C-SiC Transistor with Ohmic Contacts Defined at Room Temperature

    Li F., Sharma Y., Walker D., Hindmarsh S., Jennings M., Martin D., Fisher C., Gammon P., Pérez-Tomás A., Mawby P. IEEE Electron Device Letters; 37 (9, 7518645): 1189 - 1192. 2016. 10.1109/LED.2016.2593771. IF: 2.528

    Among all SiC polytypes, only 3C-SiC has a cubic structure and can be hetero-epitaxial grown on large area Si substrate, thus providing an alternative choice for fabricating cheap wide bandgap power devices. Here, we present a low resistivity (~3 × 10-5Ω cm2) ohmic contact formed by directly depositing a Ti/Ni metal stack on n-type 3C-SiC without any extra annealing. For the first time, 3C-SiC lateral MOSFETs with asdeposited ohmic contacts were fabricated, and it turned out not only the ohmic contact is free from any interface voids, but also a higher field-effect mobility value (~80 cm2/V · s) was achieved compared with the annealed devices. © 1980-2012 IEEE.

  • Above-Bandgap Photovoltages in Antiferroelectrics

    Pérez-Tomás A., Lira-Cantú M., Catalan G. Advanced Materials; 28 (43): 9644 - 9647. 2016. 10.1002/adma.201603176. IF: 18.960

    The closed circuit photocurrent and open circuit photovoltage of antiferroelectric thin films were characterized both in their ground (antipolar) state and in their polarized state. A sharp transition happens from near zero to large photovoltages as the polarization is switched on, consistent with the activation of the bulk photovoltaic effect. The AFE layers have been grown by a solution processing method (sol?gel synthesis followed by spin coating deposition) onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO), a transparent conducting oxide with low sheet resistance and a higher resilience to high-temperature processing than indium tin oxide and a standard for solar cells such as organometal trihalide perovskites. Light absorption confirmed that the PZO films are, as expected, wide-band gap semiconductors with a gap of 3.7.8 eV and thus highly absorbing in the near-ultraviolet range. On a virgin sample, there is no shortcircuit photocurrent, consistent with the antipolar nature of the ground state. As an external bias voltage is applied, the current remains negligible until suddenly, at the coercive voltage, a spike is observed, corresponding to the transient displacement current caused by the onset of polarization.

  • Baselines for Lifetime of Organic Solar Cells

    Gevorgyan S.A., Espinosa N., Ciammaruchi L., Roth B., Livi F., Tsopanidis S., Züfle S., Queirós S., Gregori A., Benatto G.A.D.R., Corazza M., Madsen M.V., Hösel M., Beliatis M.J., Larsen-Olsen T.T., Pastorelli F., Castro A., Mingorance A., Lenzi V., Fluhr D., Roesch R., Maria Duarte Ramos M., Savva A., Hoppe H., Marques L.S.A., Burgués I., Georgiou E., Serrano-Luján L., Krebs F.C. Advanced Energy Materials; 6 (22, 1600910) 2016. 10.1002/aenm.201600910. IF: 15.230

    The process of accurately gauging lifetime improvements in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) or other similar emerging technologies, such as perovskites solar cells is still a major challenge. The presented work is part of a larger effort of developing a worldwide database of lifetimes that can help establishing reference baselines of stability performance for OPVs and other emerging PV technologies, which can then be utilized for pass-fail testing standards and predicting tools. The study constitutes scanning of literature articles related to stability data of OPVs, reported until mid-2015 and collecting the reported data into a database. A generic lifetime marker is utilized for rating the stability of various reported devices. The collected data is combined with an earlier developed and reported database, which was based on articles reported until mid-2013. The extended database is utilized for establishing the baselines of lifetime for OPVs tested under different conditions. The work also provides the recent progress in stability of unencapsulated OPVs with different architectures, as well as presents the updated diagram of the reported record lifetimes of OPVs. The presented work is another step forward towards the development of pass-fail testing standards and lifetime prediction tools for emerging PV technologies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  • Comparative indoor and outdoor degradation of organic photovoltaic cells via inter-laboratory collaboration

    Owens C., Ferguson G.M., Hermenau M., Voroshazi E., Galagan Y., Zimmermann B., Rösch R., Angmo D., Teran-Escobar G., Uhrich C., Andriessen R., Hoppe H., Würfel U., Lira-Cantu M., Krebs F.C., Tanenbaum D.M. Polymers; 8 (1, 1) 2016. 10.3390/polym8010001. IF: 2.944

    We report on the degradation of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells in both indoor and outdoor environments. Eight different research groups contributed state of the art OPV cells to be studied at Pomona College. Power conversion efficiency and fill factor were determined from IV curves collected at regular intervals over six to eight months. Similarly prepared devices were measured indoors, outdoors, and after dark storage. Device architectures are compared. Cells kept indoors performed better than outdoors due to the lack of temperature and humidity extremes. Encapsulated cells performed better due to the minimal oxidation. Some devices showed steady aging but many failed catastrophically due to corrosion of electrodes not active device layers. Degradation of cells kept in dark storage was minimal over periods up to one year. © 2015 by the authors.

  • Flexible ITO-free organic solar cells applying aqueous solution-processed V2O5 hole transport layer: An outdoor stability study

    Lima F.A.S., Beliatis M.J., Roth B., Andersen T.R., Bortoti A., Reyna Y., Castro E., Vasconcelos I.F., Gevorgyan S.A., Krebs F.C., Lira-Cantu M. APL Materials; 4 (2, 026104) 2016. 10.1063/1.4942638. IF: 4.323

    Solution processable semiconductor oxides have opened a new paradigm for the enhancement of the lifetime of thin film solar cells. Their fabrication by low-cost and environmentally friendly solution-processable methods makes them ideal barrier (hole and electron) transport layers. In this work, we fabricate flexible ITO-free organic solar cells (OPV) by printing methods applying an aqueous solution-processed V2O5 as the hole transport layer (HTL) and compared them to devices applying PEDOT:PSS. The transparent conducting electrode was PET/Ag/PEDOT/ZnO, and the OPV configuration was PET/Ag/PEDOT/ZnO/P3HT:PC60BM/HTL/Ag. Outdoor stability analyses carried out for more than 900 h revealed higher stability for devices fabricated with the aqueous solution-processed V2O5. © 2016 Author(s).

  • Improved channel mobility by oxide nitridation for n-channel MOSFET on 3C-SiC(100)/Si

    Li F., Sharma Y.K., Jennings M.R., Pérez-Tomás A., Shah V.A., Rong H., Russell S.A.O., Martin D.M., Mawby P.A. Materials Science Forum; 858: 667 - 670. 2016. 10.4028/ IF: 0.000

    In this work we studied the gate oxidation temperature and nitridation influences on the resultant 3C-SiC MOSFET forward characteristics. Conventional long channel lateral MOSFETs were fabricated on 3C-SiC(100) epilayers grown on Si substrates using five different oxidation processes. Both room temperature and high temperature (up to 500K) forward IV performance were characterised, and channel mobility as high as 90cm2/V.s was obtained for devices with nitrided gate oxide, considerable higher than the ones without nitridation process (~70 cm2/V.s). © 2016 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  • Performance and stability of mixed FAPbI3(0.85)MAPbBr3(0.15) halide perovskite solar cells under outdoor conditions and the effect of low light irradiation

    Reyna Y., Salado M., Kazim S., Pérez-Tomas A., Ahmad S., Lira-Cantu M. Nano Energy; 30: 570 - 579. 2016. 10.1016/j.nanoen.2016.10.053. IF: 11.553

    We demonstrate for the first time, the real lifetime response of mixed halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) for >1000 h under outdoor conditions and the exceptional photoresponse observed at low-light intensities attributed to the ionic-electronic nature of the material. The investigated devices were fabricated by utilizing mixed perovskites containing formamidinium (FA) and methylammonium (MA) cations, in a one step solution-process method through a solvent engineering approach. The devices’ architecture is FTO/TiO2 (blocking layer) TiO2 (mesoporous)/FAPbI3(0.85)MAPbBr3(0.15)/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au. Notably, low short circuit current (Jsc) was observed at low light intensities (<50 W/m2) together with high open circuit potential build-up, which resulted in high PCEs. This response is in agreement with a “double electronic-ionic transport” model of the halide perovskite where the ionic component dominates at low light intensities and the electronic component dictates at high light irradiances. Our results highlight the exceptional stability of mixed MA/FA mesoscopic PSCs when operated for >1000 h under real outdoor conditions and the strong ionic component observed at low light irradiation. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


  • Electrochemically synthesized mesoporous thin films of ZnO for highly efficient dye sensitized solar cells

    Lima F.A.S., Vasconcelos I.F., Lira-Cantu M. Ceramics International; 41 (8, 10350): 9314 - 9320. 2015. 10.1016/j.ceramint.2015.03.271. IF: 2.605

    Abstract In this work, nanostructured thin films of ZnO were electrochemically grown on FTO substrates. The morphology was tuned by modifying the synthesis parameters. The synthesis was carried out by applying Zn(NO3)·6H2O as the sole component of the aqueous electrolyte, avoiding the use of capping agents. The composition and morphology of the prepared ZnO were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The as-deposited films were applied as electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The performance of the cells was investigated by J×V curves and IPCE (incident photon to charge carrier efficiency) measurements. The SEM analysis demonstrated a direct relationship between ZnO morphology and Zn precursor concentration. It has been shown that the lower the concentration is, the more porous the morphology is. Increasing the amount of dye adsorbed on the ZnO decreased the power conversion efficiency of the final DSCs. The best cell presented the following parameters: open circuit voltage VOC=0.59V, short circuit current JSC=7.64mA/cm2, fill factor FF=50.41%, and power conversion efficiency PCE=2.27%. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l.

  • Emerging thin-film photovoltaics: Stabilize or Perish

    Von Hauff E., Lira-Cantu M., Brown T.M., Hoppe H. Advanced Energy Materials; 5 (20, 1501924) 2015. 10.1002/aenm.201501924. IF: 16.146

    [No abstract available]

  • Enhanced photovoltaic performance of inverted hybrid bulk-heterojunction solar cells using TiO2/reduced graphene oxide films as electron transport layers

    Morais A., Alves J.P.C., Lima F.A.S., Lira-Cantu M., Nogueira A.F. Journal of Photonics for Energy; 5 (1, 57408) 2015. 10.1117/1.JPE.5.057408. IF: 1.366

    In this study, we investigated inverted hybrid bulk-heterojunction solar cells with the following configuration: fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) jTiO2/RGOjP3HT:PC61BMjV2O5 or PEDOT:PSS|Ag. The TiO2/GO dispersions were prepared by sol-gel method, employing titanium isopropoxide and graphene oxide (GO) as starting materials. The GO concentration was varied from 0.1 to 4.0 wt%. The corresponding dispersions were spin-coated onto FTO substrates and a thermal treatment was performed to remove organic materials and to reduce GO to reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The TiO2/RGO films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images showed that the addition of RGO significantly changes the morphology of the TiO2 films, with loss of uniformity and increase in surface roughness. Independent of the use of V2O5 or PEDOT: PSS films as the hole transport layer, the incorporation of 2.0 wt% of RGO into TiO2 films was the optimal concentration for the best organic photovoltaic performance. The solar cells based on TiO2/RGO (2.0 wt%) electrode exhibited a ~22.3% and ~28.9% short circuit current density (Jsc) and a power conversion efficiency enhancement, respectively, if compared with the devices based on pure TiO2 films. Kelvin probe force microscopy images suggest that the incorporation of RGO into TiO2 films can promote the appearance of regions with different charge dissipation capacities. © 2015 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  • Procedures and practices for evaluating thin-film solar cell stability

    Roesch R., Faber T., Von Hauff E., Brown T.M., Lira-Cantu M., Hoppe H. Advanced Energy Materials; 5 (20, 1501407) 2015. 10.1002/aenm.201501407. IF: 16.146

    During the last few decades, and in some cases only the last few years, novel thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies such as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), organic solar cells (OPV), and, more recently, perovskite-based solar cells (PSC) have been growing in maturity with respect to device performance and device stability. Together with new material systems, novel device architectures have also been introduced. Both parameters will have an effect on the overall device stability. In order to improve the understanding of degradation effects and how they can be prevented, stress testing under different conditions is commonly applied. By careful combination of stress factors and thorough analysis of photovoltaic parameter decaying curves, an understanding of the underlying degradation pathways can be gained. With the help of standardized and accelerated stress tests, as described in the ISOS-protocols, statements concerning application lifetimes can finally be made and compared among different labs. Once a photovoltaic technology has proven long lasting durability, the ultimate barrier for entering the commercial market are the IEC tests, taking a deeper look on overall safety and reliability, not only on durability. Here, the most prominent stress tests are reviewed, discussed and extended with respect to learning the most about photovoltaic device stability. Common procedures and practices for evaluating thin-film solar cell stability and durability are reviewed with respect to their applicability for predicting failure routes and application lifetimes. Suggestions for the reporting of detailed stress factors, photovoltaic parameters with sufficient statistical weight, and new figures of merit are made with the goal of steepening the learning curve towards real applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  • Vertically Aligned ZnO/Inx S y Core-Shell Nanorods for High Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Gonzalez-Valls I., Ballesteros B., Lira-Cantu M. Nano; 10 (7, 1550103) 2015. 10.1142/S1793292015501039. IF: 1.090

    Innovative vertically aligned ZnO/InxSy nanorod (NR) electrodes were prepared by successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. The InxSy shell layer was deposited on top of ZnO NR electrodes of two different lengths, ~1.6 μm and ~3.2 μm. Two sulfur contents on the InxSy shell layer with different layer thicknesses were analyzed. These electrodes were fully characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) and then applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC). Power conversion efficiency of 2.32% was observed when a low-sulfur content InxSy shell layer was applied in comparison to the stoichiometric In2S3 shell layer (0.21%) or the bare ZnO NRs (0.87%). In the case of low sulfur content, a shell layer of In(OH)xSy or/and In(OH)3 is formed as observed by the presence of-OH observed by FTIR analyses. The presence of higher amounts of hydroxide groups modifies the bandgap and work function of the InxSy shell and facilitates dye adsorption, increasing the final solar cell performance. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company.


  • Solution processable titanium dioxide precursor and nanoparticulated ink: Application in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Bosch-Jimenez, P.; Yu, Y.; Lira-Cantu, M.; Domingo, C.; Ayllón, J.A. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science; 416: 112 - 118. 2014. 10.1016/j.jcis.2013.11.013. IF: 3.552

    Open Access

  • Worldwide outdoor round robin study of organic photovoltaic devices and modules

    Madsen, M.V.; Gevorgyan, S.A.; Pacios, R.; Ajuria, J.; Etxebarria, I.; Kettle, J.; Bristow, N.D.; Neophytou, M.; Choulis, S.A.; Stolz Roman, L.; Yohannes, T.; Cester, A.; Cheng, P.; Zhan, X.; Wu, J.; Xie, Z.; Tu, W.-C.; He, J.-H.; Fell, C.J.; Anderson, K.; Hermenau, M.; Bartesaghi, D.; Jan Anton Koster, L.; Machui, F.; González-Valls, I.; Lira-Cantu, M.; Khlyabich, P.P.; Thompson, B.C.; Gupta, R.; Shanmugam, K.; Kulkarni, G.U.; Galagan, Y.; Urbina, A.; Abad, J.; Roesch, R.; Hoppe, H.; Morvillo, P.; Bobeico, E.; Panaitescu, E.; Menon, L.; Luo, Q.; Wu, Z.; Ma, C.; Hambarian, A.; Melikyan, V.; Hambsch, M.; Burn, P.L.; Meredith, P.; Rath, T.; Dunst, S.; Trimmel, G.; Bardizza, G.; Müllejans, H.; Goryachev, A.E.; Misra, R.K.; Katz, E.A.; Takagi, K.; Magaino, S.; Saito, H.; Aoki, D.; Sommeling, P.M.; Kroon, J.M.; Vangerven, T.; Manca, J.; Kesters, J.; Maes, W.; Bobkova, O.D.; Trukhanov, V.A.; Paraschuk, D.Y.; Castro, F.A.; Blakesley, J.; Tuladhar, S.M.; Alexander Röhr, J.; Nelson, J.; Xia, J.; Parlak, E.A.; Tumay, T.A.; Egelhaaf, H.-J.; Tanenbaum, D.M.; Mae Ferguson, G.; Carpenter, R.; Chen, H.; Zimmermann, B.; Hirsch, L.; Wantz, G.; Sun, Z.; Singh, P.; Bapat, C.; Offermans, T.; Krebs, F.C. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells; 130: 281 - 290. 2014. 10.1016/j.solmat.2014.07.021. IF: 5.030

    Open Access


  • A facile low temperature synthesis of TiO2 nanorods for high efficiency dye sensitized solar cells

    Shalan, A.E.; Rashad, M.M.; Yu, Y.; Lira-Cantú, M.; Abdel-Mottaleb, M.S.A. Applied Physics A; 110: 111 - 122. 2013. 10.1007/s00339-012-7368-6. IF: 1.545

  • A phenyl-capped aniline tetramer for Z907/tert-butylpyridine-based dye-sensitized solar cells and molecular modelling of the device

    Manseki, K.; Yu, Y.; Yanagida, S. Chemical Communications; 49: 1416 - 1418. 2013. 10.1039/c2cc38625a. IF: 6.378

  • Comparison of two types of vertically aligned ZnO NRs for highly efficient polymer solar cells

    Gonzalez-Valls, I.; Angmo, D.; Gevorgyan, S.A.; Sebastián Reparaz, J.; Krebs, F.C.; Lira-Cantu, M. Journal of Polymer Science, Part B: Polymer Physics; 51: 272 - 280. 2013. 10.1002/polb.23214. IF: 2.221

  • Controlling the microstructure and properties of titania nanopowders for high efficiency dye sensitized solar cells

    Shalan, A.E.; Rashad, M.M.; Yu, Y.; Lira-Cantú, M.; Abdel-Mottaleb, M.S.A. Electrochimica Acta; 89: 469 - 478. 2013. 10.1016/j.electacta.2012.11.091. IF: 3.777

  • Low-cost upscaling compatibility of five different ITO-free architectures for polymer solar cells

    Angmo, D.; Gonzalez-Valls, I.; Veenstra, S.; Verhees, W.; Sapkota, S.; Schiefer, S.; Zimmermann, B.; Galagan, Y.; Sweelssen, J.; Lira-Cantu, M.; Andriessen, R.; Kroon, J.M.; Krebs, F.C. Journal of Applied Polymer Science; 130: 944 - 954. 2013. 10.1002/app.39200. IF: 1.395

  • Low-temperature, solution-processed, layered V2O5 hydrate as the hole-transport layer for stable organic solar cells

    Terán-Escobar, G.; Pampel, J.; Caicedo, J.M.; Lira-Cantú, M. Energy and Environmental Sciences; 6 (10): 3088 - 3098. 2013. 10.1039/c3ee42204f. IF: 11.653

    Open Access

  • Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous anatase TiO2 nanostructures via organic acid precursor process for dye-sensitized solar cells applications

    Rashad, M.M.; Shalan, A.E.; Lira-Cantú, M.; Abdel-Mottaleb, M.S.A. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry; 19: 2052 - 2059. 2013. 10.1016/j.jiec.2013.03.021. IF: 2.145


  • Combined characterization techniques to understand the stability of a variety of organic photovoltaic devices - The ISOS-3 interlaboratory collaboration

    Lira-Cantu, M.; Tanenbaum, D.M.; Norrman, K.; Voroshazi, E.; Hermenau, M.; Lloyd, M.T.; Teran-Escobar, G.; Galagan, Y.; Zimmermann, B.; Hösel, M.; Dam, H.F.; Jørgensen, M.; Gevorgyan, S.; Lutsen, L.; Vanderzande, D.; Hoppe, H.; Rösch, R.; Würfel, U.; Andriessen, R.; Rivaton, A.; Uzunoglu, G.Y.; Germack, D.; Andreasen, B.; Madsen, M.V.; Bundgaard, E.; Krebs, F.C. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering; 8472: 847203. 2012. doi:10.1117/12.929579.

  • Enhanced light extraction in ITO-free OLEDs using double-sided printed electrodes

    Reboud, V.; Khokhar, A.Z.; Sepúlveda, B.; Dudek, D.; Kehoe, T.; Cuffe, J.; Kehagias, N.; Lira-Cantu, M.; Gadegaard, N.; Grasso, V.; Lambertini, V.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M. Nanoscale; 4 (11): 3495 - 3500. 2012. .

  • Hydrothermal synthesis of 1D TiO2 nanostructures for dye sensitized solar cells

    Tacchini, I.; Ansón-Casaos, A.; Yu, Y.; Martínez, M.T.; Lira-Cantu, M. Materials Science & Engineering B: Solid-State Materials for Advanced Technology; 177: 19 - 26. 2012. 10.1016/j.mseb.2011.09.024.

  • Investigation of the degradation mechanisms of a variety of organic photovoltaic devices by combination of imaging techniques - The ISOS-3 inter-laboratory collaboration

    Rösch, R.; Tanenbaum, D.M.; Jørgensen, M.; Seeland, M.; Bärenklau, M.; Hermenau, M.; Voroshazi, E.; Lloyd, M.T.; Galagan, Y.; Zimmermann, B.; Würfel, U.; Hösel, M.; Dam, H.F.; Gevorgyan, S.A.; Kudret, S.; Maes, W.; Lutsen, L.; Vanderzande, D.; Andriessen, R.; Teran-Escobar, G.; Lira-Cantu, M.; Rivaton, A.; Uzunoglu, G.Y.; Germack, D.; Andreasen, B.; Madsen, M.V.; Norrman, K.; Hoppe, H.; Krebs, F.C. Energy and Environmental Sciences; 5: 6521 - 6540. 2012. 10.1039/c2ee03508a.

  • New D-Ï€-A-conjugated organic sensitizers based on 4 H-pyran-4-ylidene donors for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Franco, S.; Garín, J.; Martínez De Baroja, N.; Pérez-Tejada, R.; Orduna, J.; Yu, Y.; Lira-Cantú, M. Organic Letters; 14: 752 - 755. 2012. 10.1021/ol203298r.

  • On the stability of a variety of organic photovoltaic devices by IPCE and in situ IPCE analyses - The ISOS-3 inter-laboratory collaboration

    Teran-Escobar, G.; Tanenbaum, D.M.; Voroshazi, E.; Hermenau, M.; Norrman, K.; Lloyd, M.T.; Galagan, Y.; Zimmermann, B.; Hösel, M.; Dam, H.F.; Jorgensen, M.; Gevorgyan, S.; Kudret, S.; Maes, W.; Lutsen, L.; Vanderzande, D.; Würfel, U.; Andriessen, R.; Rösch, R.; Hoppe, H.; Rivaton, A.; Uzunoglu, G.Y.; Germack, D.; Andreasen, B.; Madsen, M.V.; Bundgaard, E.; Krebs, F.C.; Lira-Cantu, M. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics; 14: 11824 - 11845. 2012. 10.1039/c2cp40821j.

  • Solution processable TiO 2 nanoparticles capped with lauryl gallate

    Bosch-Jimenez, P.; Lira-Cantu, M.; Domingo, C.; Ayllón, J.A. Materials Letters; 89: 296. 2012. .

  • Stability and degradation of organic photovoltaics fabricated, aged, and characterized by the ISOS 3 inter-laboratory collaboration

    Tanenbaum, D.M.; Hermenau, M.; Voroshazi, E.; Lloyd, M.T.; Galagan, Y.; Zimmermann, B.; Hösel, M.; Dam, H.F.; Jørgensen, M.; Gevorgyan, S.; Kudret, S.; Maes, W.; Lutsen, L.; Vanderzande, D.; Würfel, U.; Andriessen, R.; Rösch, R.; Hoppe, H.; Lira-Cantu, M.; Teran-Escobar, G.; Dupuis, A.; Bussière, P.O.; Rivaton, A.; Uzunoglu, G.Y.; Germack, D.; Andreasen, B.; Madsen, M.V.; Norrman, K.; Bundgaard, E.; Krebs, F.C. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering; 8477: 847704. 2012. doi:10.1117/12.930451 .

  • The ISOS-3 inter-laboratory collaboration focused on the stability of a variety of organic photovoltaic devices

    Tanenbaum, D.M.; Hermenau, M.; Voroshazi, E.; Lloyd, M.T.; Galagan, Y.; Zimmermann, B.; Hösel, M.; Dam, H.F.; Jørgensen, M.; Gevorgyan, S.A.; Kudret, S.; Maes, W.; Lutsen, L.; Vanderzande, D.; Würfel, U.; Andriessen, R.; Rösch, R.; Hoppe, H.; Teran-Escobar, G.; Lira-Cantu, M.; Rivaton, A.; Uzunolu, G.Y.; Germack, D.; Andreasen, B.; Madsen, M.V.; Norrman, K.; Krebs, F.C. RSC Advances; 2: 882 - 893. 2012. 10.1039/c1ra00686j.

  • The use of polyurethane as encapsulating method for polymer solar cells - An inter laboratory study on outdoor stability in 8 countries

    Sÿndergaard R.R.; Makris, T.; Lianos, P.; Manor, A.; Katz, E.A.; Gong, W.; Tuladhar, S.M.; Nelson, J.; Tuomi, R.; Sommeling, P.; Veenstra, S.C.; Rivaton, A.; Dupuis, A.; Teran-Escobar, G.; Lira-Cantu, M.; Sapkota, S.B.; Zimmermann, B.; Wÿrfel, U.; Matzarakis, A.; Krebs, F.C. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells; 99: 292. 2012. .

  • TOF-SIMS investigation of degradation pathways occurring in a variety of organic photovoltaic devices - The ISOS-3 inter-laboratory collaboration

    Andreasen, B.; Tanenbaum, D.M.; Hermenau, M.; Voroshazi, E.; Lloyd, M.T.; Galagan, Y.; Zimmernann, B.; Kudret, S.; Maes, W.; Lutsen, L.; Vanderzande, D.; Würfel, U.; Andriessen, R.; Rösch, R.; Hoppe, H.; Teran-Escobar, G.; Lira-Cantu, M.; Rivaton, A.; Uzunoglu, G.Y.; Germack, D.S.; Hösel, M.; Dam, H.F.; Jorgensen, M.; Gevorgyan, S.A.; Madsen, M.V.; Bundgaard, E.; Krebs, F.C.; Norrman, K. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics; 14: 11780 - 11799. 2012. 10.1039/c2cp41787a.


  • A clean low-temperature ZnO deposition method for multipurpose applications

    Estruga, M.; Gonzalez-Valls, I.; Domingo, C.; Lira-Cantu, M.; Ayllón, J.A. European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry; : 821 - 825. 2011. 10.1002/ejic.201000966.

  • Aligned TiO2 nanocolumnar layers prepared by PVD-GLAD for transparent dye sensitized solar cells

    González-García, L.; González-Valls, I.; Lira-Cantu, M.; Barranco, A.; González-Elipe, A.R. Energy and Environmental Sciences; 4: 3426 - 3435. 2011. 10.1039/c0ee00489h.

  • An inter-laboratory stability study of roll-to-roll coated flexible polymer solar modules

    Gevorgyan, S.A.; Medford, A.J.; Bundgaard, E.; Sapkota, S.B.; Schleiermacher, H.-F.; Zimmermann, B.; Würfel, U.; Chafiq, A.; Lira-Cantu, M.; Swonke, T.; Wagner, M.; Brabec, C.J.; Haillant, O.; Voroshazi, E.; Aernouts, T.; Steim, R.; Hauch, J.A.; Elschner, A.; Pannone, M.; Xiao, M.; Langzettel, A.; Laird, D.; Lloyd, M.T.; Rath, T.; Maier, E.; Trimmel, G.; Hermenau, M.; Menke, T.; Leo, K.; Rösch, R.; Seeland, M.; Hoppe, H.; Nagle, T.J.; Burke, K.B.; Fell, C.J.; Vak, D.; Singh, T.B.; Watkins, S.E.; Galagan, Y.; Manor, A.; Katz, E.A.; Kim, T.; Kim, K.; Sommeling, P.M.; Verhees, W.J.H.; Veenstra, S.C.; Riede, M.; Greyson Christoforo, M.; Currier, T.; Shrotriya, V.; Schwartz, G.; Krebs, F.C. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells; 95: 1398 - 1416. 2011. 10.1016/j.solmat.2011.01.010.

  • Oxide/polymer interfaces for hybrid and organic solar cells: Anatase vs. Rutile TiO2

    Lira-Cantu, M.; Chafiq, A.; Faissat, J.; Gonzalez-Valls, I.; Yu, Y. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells; 95: 1362 - 1374. 2011. 10.1016/j.solmat.2010.12.028.

  • Synthesis conditions, light intensity and temperature effect on the performance of ZnO nanorods-based dye sensitized solar cells

    Gonzalez-Valls, I.; Yu, Y.; Ballesteros, B.; Oro, J.; Lira-Cantu, M. Journal of Power Sources; 196: 6609 - 6621. 2011. 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.03.063.


  • Dye sensitized solar cells based on vertically-aligned ZnO nanorods: Effect of UV light on power conversion efficiency and lifetime

    Gonzalez-Valls, I.; Lira-Cantu, M. Energy and Environmental Sciences; 3: 789 - 795. 2010. 10.1039/b922354a.

  • Nb-TiO2/polymer hybrid solar cells with photovoltaic response under inert atmosphere conditions

    Lira-Cantu, M.; Khoda Siddiki, M.; Muñoz-Rojas, D.; Amade, R.; González-Pech, N.I. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells; 94: 1227 - 1234. 2010. 10.1016/j.solmat.2010.03.011.

  • Titanium dioxide/amine hybrid nanotubes. Optical properties and behavior as lithium-ion electrode

    Vasquez, J; López, Z; Zuñiga, A; Nacher, A; Lira-Cantú, M; Gómez-Romero, P; Ana, M.A.S; Benavente, E; González, G. Electrochimica Acta; 55 (4): 1373 - 1379. 2010. 10.1016/j.electacta.2009.05.010.


  • A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules

    Monica Lira-Cantu; ichael Gratzel; Panagiotis Lianos; Eugene A. Katz; Wolfgang Lohwasser; Bertrand Jannon et al. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells; 2009. .

  • Application of MEH-PPV/SnO2 bilayer as hybrid solar cell

    Ayllon, J.A.; Lira-Cantu, M. Applied Physics A; 95: 249 - 255. 2009. 10.1007/s00339-008-5023-z.

    Open Access

  • High-Yield preparation of titanium dioxide nanostructures by hydrothermal conditions

    Vasquez, J; Lozano, H; Lavayen, V; Lira-Cantu, M; Gomez-Romero, P; Ana, M.A.S; Benavente, E; Gonzalez, G. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology; 9 (2): 1103 - 1107. 2009. 10.1166/jnn.2009.C097.

  • Neural cell growth on TiO2 anatase nanostructured surfaces

    Collazos-Castro, J.E.; Cruz, A.M.; Carballo-Vila, M.; Lira-Cantú, M.; Abad, L.; del Pino, Á.P.; Fraxedas, J.; San Juan, A.; Fonseca, C.; Pêgo, A.P.; Casañ-Pastor, N. Thin Solid Films; 518: 160 - 170. 2009. 10.1016/j.tsf.2009.06.048.

  • Vertically-aligned nanostructures of ZnO for excitonic solar cells: A review

    Gonzalez-Valls, I.; Lira-Cantu, M. Energy and Environmental Sciences; 2: 19 - 34. 2009. 10.1039/b811536b.


  • Conjugated polymers as part of multifunctional organic/inorganic hybrid materials for photovoltaic applications Symposium on Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials, Apr 9-13, 2007 San Francisco, USA Source: ORGANIC/INORGANIC HYBRID MATERIALS - 2007 Book Series: MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY SYMPOSIUM PROCEEDINGS

    Lira-Cantu, M.; Krebs, F.C.; Gomez-Romero, P.; Yanagida, S. Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings; 1007: 249 - 257. 2008. .

  • Influence of doped anions on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) as hole conductors for iodine-free solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Xia, J.; Masaki, N.; Lira-Cantu, M.; Kim, Y.; Jiang, K.; Yanagida, S. Journal of the American Chemical Society; 130: 1258 - 1263. 2008. 10.1021/ja075704o.

  • Solid-state dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) as substitutes of iodine/iodide electrolytes and noble metal catalysts on FTO counter electrodes

    Kim, Y.; Sung, Y.-E.; Xia, J.-B.; Lira-Cantu, M.; Masaki, N.; Yanagida, S. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry; 193: 77 - 80. 2008. 10.1016/j.jphotochem.2007.06.009.


  • Improvement in the Ppy/V2O5 hybrid as a cathode material for Li ion batteries using PSA as an organic additive

    Boyano, I.; Bengoechea, M.; de Meatza, I.; Miguel, O.; Cantero, I.; Ochoteco, E.; Rodríguez, J.; Lira-Cantú, M.; Gómez-Romero, P. Journal of Power Sources; 166: 471 - 477. 2007. 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2006.12.106.

  • Influence of acids in the Ppy/V2O5 hybrid synthesis and performance as a cathode material

    Boyano, I.; Bengoechea, M.; de Meatza, I.; Miguel, O.; Cantero, I.; Ochoteco, E.; Grande, H.; Lira-Cantú, M.; Gomez-Romero, P.; Gómez-Romero, P. Journal of Power Sources; 174: 1206 - 1211. 2007. 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.06.175.


  • Ionic and electronic conductivity of 5% Ca-Doped GdNbO4

    Haugsrud, R.; Ballesteros, B.; Lira-Cantú, M.; Norby, T. Journal of the Electrochemical Society; 153: J87 - J90. 2006. 10.1149/1.2203933.

  • Oxygen release and exchange in niobium oxide MEHPPV hybrid solar cells

    Lira-Cantu, M.; Norrman, K.; Andreasen, J.W.; Krebs, F.C. Chemistry of Materials; 18: 5684 - 5690. 2006. 10.1021/cm061429d.


  • Hybrid materials approach in the design of electrodes and electrolytes for energy storage and conversion

    Cuentas-Gallegos, K.; Lira-Cantú, M.; Casañ-Pastor, N.; Asensio, J.A.; Gómez-Romero, P. Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings; 847 (Article number EE12.4): 431 - 438. 2005. .


  • Hybrid materials based on Vanadyl Phosphate and Conducting Polymers as Cathodes in Rechargeable Lithium Cells.

    A. Karina Cuentas-Gallegos; R. Vijayaraghavan; Mónica Lira-Cantú; Nieves Casañ-Pastor; Pedro Gómez-Romero Boletin de la Sociedad Espanola de Ceramica y Vidrio; 43 (2): 429 - 433. 2004. .