Staff directory Zewdu Messele Gebeyehu

Publications

2019

  • Epitaxial graphene/silicon carbide intercalation: A minireview on graphene modulation and unique 2D materials

    Briggs N., Gebeyehu Z.M., Vera A., Zhao T., Wang K., De La Fuente Duran A., Bersch B., Bowen T., Knappenberger K.L., Robinson J.A. Nanoscale; 11 (33): 15440 - 15447. 2019. 10.1039/c9nr03721g. IF: 6.970

    Intercalation of atomic species through epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide began only a few years following its initial report in 2004. The impact of intercalation on the electronic properties of the graphene is well known; however, the intercalant itself can also exhibit intriguing properties not found in nature. This realization has inspired new interest in epitaxial graphene/silicon carbide (EG/SiC) intercalation, where the scope of the technique extends beyond modulation of graphene properties to the creation of new 2D forms of 3D materials. The mission of this minireview is to provide a concise introduction to EG/SiC intercalation and to demonstrate a simplified approach to EG/SiC intercalation. We summarize the primary techniques used to achieve and characterize EG/SiC intercalation, and show that thermal evaporation-based methods can effectively substitute for more complex synthesis techniques, enabling large-scale intercalation of non-refractory metals and compounds including two-dimensional silver (2D-Ag) and gallium nitride (2D-GaNx). © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


  • Spin communication over 30 μm long channels of chemical vapor deposited graphene on SiO2

    Gebeyehu Z.M., Parui S., Sierra J.F., Timmermans M., Esplandiu M.J., Brems S., Huyghebaert C., Garello K., Costache M.V., Valenzuela S.O. 2D Materials; 6 (3, 034003) 2019. 10.1088/2053-1583/ab1874. IF: 7.343

    We demonstrate a high-yield fabrication of non-local spin valve devices with room-temperature spin lifetimes of up to 3 ns and spin relaxation lengths as long as 9 μm in platinum-based chemical vapor deposition (Pt-CVD) synthesized single-layer graphene on SiO2/Si substrates. The spin-lifetime systematically presents a marked minimum at the charge neutrality point, as typically observed in pristine exfoliated graphene. However, by studying the carrier density dependence beyond n ∼ 5 × 1012 cm-2, via electrostatic gating, it is found that the spin lifetime reaches a maximum and then starts decreasing, a behavior that is reminiscent of that predicted when the spin-relaxation is driven by spin-orbit interaction. The spin lifetimes and relaxation lengths compare well with state-of-the-art results using exfoliated graphene on SiO2/Si, being a factor two-to-three larger than the best values reported at room temperature using the same substrate. As a result, the spin signal can be readily measured across 30 μm long graphene channels. These observations indicate that Pt-CVD graphene is a promising material for large-scale spin-based logic-in-memory applications. © 2019 IOP Publishing Ltd.


2018

  • Impact of the: In situ rise in hydrogen partial pressure on graphene shape evolution during CVD growth of graphene

    Gebeyehu Z.M., Arrighi A., Costache M.V., Sotomayor-Torres C.M., Esplandiu M.J., Valenzuela S.O. RSC Advances; 8 (15): 8234 - 8239. 2018. 10.1039/c7ra13169k. IF: 2.936

    Exposing graphene to a hydrogen post-etching process yields dendritic graphene shapes. Here, we demonstrate that similar dendritic structures can be achieved at long growth times without adding hydrogen externally. These shapes are not a result of a surface diffusion controlled growth but of the competing backward reaction (etching), which dominates the growth dynamics at long times due to an in situ rise in the hydrogen partial pressure. We have performed a systematic study on the growth of graphene as a function of time to identify the onset and gradual evolution of graphene shapes caused by etching and then demonstrated that the etching can be stopped by reducing the flow of hydrogen from the feed. In addition, we have found that the etching rate due to the in situ rise in hydrogen is strongly dependent on the confinement (geometrical confinement) of copper foil. Highly etched graphene with dendritic shapes was observed in unconfined copper foil regions while no etching was found in graphene grown in a confined reaction region. This highlights the effect of the dynamic reactant distribution in activating the in situ etching process during growth, which needs to be counteracted or controlled for large scale growth. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2018.