Staff directory Clivia Marfa Sotomayor Torres

Clivia Marfa Sotomayor Torres

ICREA Research Professor and Group Leader
Phononic and Photonic Nanostructures



  • Composites of laminar nanostructured ZnO and VOx-nanotubes hybrid as visible light active photocatalysts

    Benavente E., Navas D., Devis S., Segovia M., Sotomayor-Torres C., González G. Catalysts; 8 (2, 93) 2018. 10.3390/catal8020093.

    A series of hybrid heterostructured nanocomposites of ZnO with V2O5 nanotubes (VOx-NTs) in different mixing ratios were synthesized, with the aim of reducing the recombination of photoinduced charge carriers and to optimize the absorption of visible light. The study was focused on the use of heterostructured semiconductors that can extend light absorption to the visible range and enhance the photocatalytic performance of ZnO in the degradation of methylene blue as a model pollutant. The addition of VOx-NTs in the synthesis mixture led to a remarkable performance in the degradation of the model dye, with hybrid ZnO (stearic acid)/VOx-NTs at a ratio of 1:0.06 possessing the highest photocatalytic activity, about seven times faster than pristine zinc oxide. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopic measurements and experiments in the presence of different trapping elements allowed us to draw conclusions regarding the band positions and photocatalytic degradation mechanism. The photocatalytic activity measured in three subsequent cycles showed good reusability as no significant loss in efficiency of dye degradation was observed. © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • Design of a Multifunctional Nanoengineered PLLA Surface by Maximizing the Synergies between Biochemical and Surface Design Bactericidal Effects

    Nerantzaki M., Kehagias N., Francone A., Fernández A., Sotomayor Torres C.M., Papi R., Choli-Papadopoulou T., Bikiaris D.N. ACS Omega; 3 (2): 1509 - 1521. 2018. 10.1021/acsomega.7b01756.

    Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter on atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scales, has become the most appealing strategy for biomedical applications and is of great interest as an approach to preventing microbial risks. In this study, we utilize the antimicrobial performance and the drug-loading ability of novel nanoparticles based on silicon oxide and strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite to develop nanocomposite antimicrobial films based on a poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) polymer. We also demonstrate that nanoimprint lithography (NIL), a process adaptable to industrial application, is a feasible fabrication technique to modify the surface of PLLA, to alter its physical properties, and to utilize it for antibacterial applications. Various nanocomposite PLLA films with nanosized (black silicon) and three-dimensional (hierarchical) hybrid domains were fabricated by thermal NIL, and their bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was assessed. Our findings demonstrate that besides hydrophobicity the nanoparticle antibiotic delivery and the surface roughness are essential factors that affect the biofilm formation. © 2018 American Chemical Society.

  • Enhancement photocatalytic activity of the heterojunction of two-dimensional hybrid semiconductors ZnO/V2O5

    Aliaga J., Cifuentes N., González G., Sotomayor-Torres C., Benavente E. Catalysts; 8 (9, 374) 2018. 10.3390/catal8090374.

    In this work, we report the fabrication of the new heterojunction of two 2D hybrid layered semiconductors—ZnO (stearic acid)/V2O5 (hexadecylamine)—and its behavior in the degradation of aqueous methylene blue under visible light irradiation. The optimal photocatalyst efficiency, reached at a ZnO (stearic acid)/V2O5 (hexadecylamine) ratio of 1:0.25, results in being six times higher than that of pristine zinc oxide. Reusability test shows that after three photocatalysis cycles, no significant changes in either the dye degradation efficiency loss, nor the photocatalyst structure, occur. Visible light photocatalytic performance observed indicates there is synergetic effect between both 2D nanocomposites used in the heterojunction. The visible light absorption enhancement promoted by the narrower bandgap V2O5 based components; an increased photo generated charge separation favored by extensive interface area; and abundance of hydrophobic sites for dye adsorption appear as probable causes of the improved photocatalytic efficiency in this hybrid semiconductors heterojunction. Estimated band-edge positions for both conduction and valence band of semiconductors, together with experiments using specific radical scavengers, allow a plausible photodegradation mechanism. © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • Heterostructured layered hybrid ZnO/MoS2 nanosheets with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity

    Benavente E., Durán F., Sotomayor-Torres C., González G. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids; 113: 119 - 124. 2018. 10.1016/j.jpcs.2017.10.027.

    A series of novel heterostructured hybrid layered ZnO and MoS2 nanosheets composites were successfully prepared with different MoS2 contents. Among all the prepared materials, ZnO/MoS2 (1:0.05) composite showed enhanced photocatalytic activity for methylene blue degradation under direct solar light compared with pristine ZnO. The MoS2 component played a key role for the visible light activity of the composite system at longer wavelengths. The kinetic equations of photocatalytic reaction and possible photocatalytic degradation mechanism were investigated. The results indicated that it belongs to the zero order kinetic and the photogenerated electrons are transferred from hybrid layered ZnO to the MoS2 nanosheets, facilitating an interfacial electron transfer suppressing the recombination of charge carriers during the photocatalytic degradation. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  • Impact of the: In situ rise in hydrogen partial pressure on graphene shape evolution during CVD growth of graphene

    Gebeyehu Z.M., Arrighi A., Costache M.V., Sotomayor-Torres C.M., Esplandiu M.J., Valenzuela S.O. RSC Advances; 8 (15): 8234 - 8239. 2018. 10.1039/c7ra13169k.

    Exposing graphene to a hydrogen post-etching process yields dendritic graphene shapes. Here, we demonstrate that similar dendritic structures can be achieved at long growth times without adding hydrogen externally. These shapes are not a result of a surface diffusion controlled growth but of the competing backward reaction (etching), which dominates the growth dynamics at long times due to an in situ rise in the hydrogen partial pressure. We have performed a systematic study on the growth of graphene as a function of time to identify the onset and gradual evolution of graphene shapes caused by etching and then demonstrated that the etching can be stopped by reducing the flow of hydrogen from the feed. In addition, we have found that the etching rate due to the in situ rise in hydrogen is strongly dependent on the confinement (geometrical confinement) of copper foil. Highly etched graphene with dendritic shapes was observed in unconfined copper foil regions while no etching was found in graphene grown in a confined reaction region. This highlights the effect of the dynamic reactant distribution in activating the in situ etching process during growth, which needs to be counteracted or controlled for large scale growth. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2018.

  • In-line metrology for roll-to-roll UV assisted nanoimprint lithography using diffractometry

    Kreuzer M., Whitworth G.L., Francone A., Gomis-Bresco J., Kehagias N., Sotomayor-Torres C.M. APL Materials; 6 (5, 058502) 2018. 10.1063/1.5011740.

    We describe and discuss the optical design of a diffractometer to carry out in-line quality control during roll-to-roll nanoimprinting. The tool measures diffractograms in reflection geometry, through an aspheric lens to gain fast, non-invasive information of any changes to the critical dimensions of target grating structures. A stepwise tapered linear grating with constant period was fabricated in order to detect the variation in grating linewidth through diffractometry. The minimum feature change detected was ∼40 nm to a precision of 10 nm. The diffractometer was then integrated with a roll-to-roll UV assisted nanoimprint lithography machine to gain dynamic measurements in situ. © 2018 Author(s).

  • Integrated 3D hydrogel waveguide out-coupler by step-and-repeat thermal nanoimprint lithography: A promising sensor device for water and pH

    Francone A., Kehoe T., Obieta I., Saez-Martinez V., Bilbao L., Khokhar A.Z., Gadegaard N., Simao C.D., Kehagias N., Sotomayor Torres C.M. Sensors (Switzerland); 18 (10, 3240) 2018. 10.3390/s18103240.

    Hydrogel materials offer many advantages for chemical and biological sensoring due to their response to a small change in their environment with a related change in volume. Several designs have been outlined in the literature in the specific field of hydrogel-based optical sensors, reporting a large number of steps for their fabrication. In this work we present a three-dimensional, hydrogel-based sensor the structure of which is fabricated in a single step using thermal nanoimprint lithography. The sensor is based on a waveguide with a grating readout section. A specific hydrogel formulation, based on a combination of PEGDMA (Poly(Ethylene Glycol DiMethAcrylate)), NIPAAm (N-IsoPropylAcrylAmide), and AA (Acrylic Acid), was developed. This stimulus-responsive hydrogel is sensitive to pH and to water. Moreover, the hydrogel has been modified to be suitable for fabrication by thermal nanoimprint lithography. Once stimulated, the hydrogel-based sensor changes its topography, which is characterised physically by AFM and SEM, and optically using a specific optical set-up. © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • Mechanisms behind the enhancement of thermal properties of graphene nanofluids

    Rodríguez-Laguna M.R., Castro-Alvarez A., Sledzinska M., Maire J., Costanzo F., Ensing B., Pruneda M., Ordejón P., Sotomayor Torres C.M., Gómez-Romero P., Chávez-Ángel E. Nanoscale; 10 (32): 15402 - 15409. 2018. 10.1039/c8nr02762e.

    While the dispersion of nanomaterials is known to be effective in enhancing the thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of fluids, the mechanisms behind this enhancement remain to be elucidated. Herein, we report on highly stable, surfactant-free graphene nanofluids, based on N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), with enhanced thermal properties. An increase of up to 48% in thermal conductivity and 18% in specific heat capacity was measured. The blue shift of several Raman bands with increasing graphene concentration in DMF indicates that there is a modification in the vibrational energy of the bonds associated with these modes, affecting all the molecules in the liquid. This result indicates that graphene has the ability to affect solvent molecules at long-range, in terms of vibrational energy. Density functional theory and molecular dynamics simulations were used to gather data on the interaction between graphene and solvent, and to investigate a possible order induced by graphene on the solvent. The simulations showed a parallel orientation of DMF towards graphene, favoring π-π stacking. Furthermore, a local order of DMF molecules around graphene was observed suggesting that both this special kind of interaction and the induced local order may contribute to the enhancement of the fluid's thermal properties. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Nanocrystalline silicon optomechanical cavities

    Navarro-Urrios D., Capuj N.E., Maire J., Colombano M., Jaramillo-Fernandez J., Chavez-Angel E., Martin L.L., Mercadé L., Griol A., Martínez A., Sotomayor-Torres C.M., Ahopelto J. Optics Express; 26 (8): 9829 - 9839. 2018. 10.1364/OE.26.009829.

    Silicon on insulator photonics has offered a versatile platform for the recent development of integrated optomechanical circuits. However, there are some constraints such as the high cost of the wafers and limitation to a single physical device level. In the present work we investigate nanocrystalline silicon as an alternative material for optomechanical devices. In particular, we demonstrate that optomechanical crystal cavities fabricated of nanocrystalline silicon have optical and mechanical properties enabling non-linear dynamical behaviour and effects such as thermo-optic/free-carrier-dispersion self-pulsing, phonon lasing and chaos, all at low input laser power and with typical frequencies as high as 0.3 GHz. © 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement.

  • Raman thermometry analysis: Modelling assumptions revisited

    Jaramillo-Fernandez J., Chavez-Angel E., Sotomayor-Torres C.M. Applied Thermal Engineering; 130: 1175 - 1181. 2018. 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2017.11.033.

    In Raman thermometry, several assumptions are made to model the heat conduction and to extract the thermal conductivity of the samples from the measured data. In this work, the heat conduction in bulk and mesa-like samples was investigated by numerical simulation and measured by the temperature-induced Raman shift method, to study the range of applicability of these assumptions. The effects of light penetration depth and finite sample size on the accuracy of the thermal conductivity determination were investigated by comparing the results of the finite element method with the usual analytical approximation for bulk samples. We found that the assumptions used in the analytical model can be applied to extract the thermal conductivity in solids if the following conditions are fulfilled: the ratio of light penetration depth to laser spot radius is smaller than 0.5, the ratio of spot radius to sample thickness is smaller than 0.1, and the ratio of spot radius to sample half width is smaller than 0.01. © 2017


  • Angle-Dependent Photoluminescence Spectroscopy of Solution-Processed Organic Semiconducting Nanobelts

    Wang M., Gong Y., Alzina F., Sotomayor Torres C.M., Li H., Zhang Z., He J. Journal of Physical Chemistry C; 121 (22): 12441 - 12446. 2017. 10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b02958. IF: 4.536

    We report an anomalous anisotropy in photoluminescence (PL) from crystalline nanobelt of an organic small-molecule semiconductor, 6,13-dichloropentacene (DCP). Large-area well-aligned DCP nanobelt arrays are readily formed by self-assembly through solution method utilizing the strong anisotropic interactions between molecules. The absorption spectrum of the arrays suggests the formation of both intramolecular exciton and intermolecular exciton. However, the results of angle-dependent PL spectroscopy indicate that the PL arises only from the relaxation of intramolecular exciton, which has an optical transition dipole moment with an angle of 115° with the long-axis of the nanobelts. The angular dependence of PL signals follows a quartic rule (IPL(θ) ∞ cos4(θ - 115)) and agrees well with the optical selection rule of individual DCP molecules. The measured polarization ratio ρ from the individual nanobelts is on average 0.91 ± 0.02, superior to that of prior-art organic semiconductors. These results provide new insights into exciton behavior in 1D π-π stacking organic semiconductors and demonstrate DCP's great potential in the photodetectors and optical switches for large-scale organic optoelectronics. © 2017 American Chemical Society.

  • Design of Hierarchical Surfaces for Tuning Wetting Characteristics

    Fernández A., Francone A., Thamdrup L.H., Johansson A., Bilenberg B., Nielsen T., Guttmann M., Sotomayor Torres C.M., Kehagias N. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces; 9 (8): 7701 - 7709. 2017. 10.1021/acsami.6b13615. IF: 7.504

    Patterned surfaces with tunable wetting properties are described. A hybrid hierarchical surface realized by combining two different materials exhibits different wetting states, depending on the speed of impingement of the water droplets. Both "lotus" (high contact angle and low adhesion) and "petal" (high contact angle and high adhesion) states were observed on the same surface without the need of any modification of the surface. The great difference between the capillary pressures exerted by the microstructures and nanostructures was the key factor that allowed us to tailor effectively the adhesiveness of the water droplets. Having a low capillary pressure for the microstructures and a high capillary pressure for the nanostructures, we allow to the surface the possibility of being in a lotus state or in a petal state. © 2017 American Chemical Society.

  • Directional elastic wave propagation in high-aspect-ratio photoresist gratings: Liquid infiltration and aging

    Alonso-Redondo E., Gueddida A., Li J., Graczykowski B., Sotomayor Torres C.M., Pennec Y., Yang S., Djafari-Rouhani B., Fytas G. Nanoscale; 9 (8): 2739 - 2747. 2017. 10.1039/c6nr08312a. IF: 7.367

    Determination of the mechanical properties of nanostructured soft materials and their composites in a quantitative manner is of great importance to improve the fidelity in their fabrication and to enable the subsequent reliable utility. Here, we report on the characterization of the elastic and photoelastic parameters of a periodic array of nanowalls (grating) by the non-invasive Brillouin light scattering technique and finite element calculations. The resolved elastic vibrational modes in high and low aspect ratio nanowalls reveal quantitative and qualitative differences related to the two-beam interference lithography fabrication and subsequent aging under ambient conditions. The phononic properties, namely the dispersion relations, can be drastically altered by changing the surrounding material of the nanowalls. Here we demonstrate that liquid infiltration turns the phononic function from a single-direction phonon-guiding to an anisotropic propagation along the two orthogonal directions. The susceptibility of the phononic behavior to the infiltrating liquid can be of unusual benefits, such as sensing and alteration of the materials under confinement. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2017.

  • Effect of the annealing on the power factor of un-doped cold-pressed SnSe

    Morales Ferreiro J.O., Diaz-Droguett D.E., Celentano D., Reparaz J.S., Sotomayor Torres C.M., Ganguli S., Luo T. Applied Thermal Engineering; 111: 1426 - 1432. 2017. 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.07.198. IF: 3.444

    Tin Selenide (SnSe), a thermoelectric material of the chalcogenide family, has attracted tremendous interest in the past few years due to its unprecedented thermoelectric figure-of-merit, ZT, of 2.6. In this work we have carried out an experimental study of the impact of annealing on the thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline SnSe formed by cold-pressing un-doped SnSe powders with a Hall carrier concentration of 5.37 × 1017 cm−3. The crystalline structure and morphology of the samples are characterized and properties, including electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity, are measured. It is found that thermal annealing has a large impact on both the microstructure and the thermoelectric properties. Notably, annealing leads to re-alignment of crystalline domains, increase in Seebeck coefficient by a factor of as much as 3, and increase in the electrical conductivity. A peak ZT of 0.11 was achieved at 772 K which is smaller than un-doped polycrystalline SnSe. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  • Elastic Properties of Few Nanometers Thick Polycrystalline MoS2 Membranes: A Nondestructive Study

    Graczykowski B., Sledzinska M., Placidi M., Saleta Reig D., Kasprzak M., Alzina F., Sotomayor Torres C.M. Nano Letters; 17 (12): 7647 - 7651. 2017. 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b03669. IF: 12.712

    The performance gain-oriented nanostructurization has opened a new pathway for tuning mechanical features of solid matter vital for application and maintained performance. Simultaneously, the mechanical evaluation has been pushed down to dimensions way below 1 μm. To date, the most standard technique to study the mechanical properties of suspended 2D materials is based on nanoindentation experiments. In this work, by means of micro-Brillouin light scattering we determine the mechanical properties, that is, Young modulus and residual stress, of polycrystalline few nanometers thick MoS2 membranes in a simple, contact-less, nondestructive manner. The results show huge elastic softening compared to bulk MoS2, which is correlated with the sample morphology and the residual stress. © 2017 American Chemical Society.

  • Hierarchical surfaces for enhanced self-cleaning applications

    Fernández A., Francone A., Thamdrup L.H., Johansson A., Bilenberg B., Nielsen T., Guttmann M., Sotomayor Torres C.M., Kehagias N. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering; 27 (4, 045020) 2017. 10.1088/1361-6439/aa62bb. IF: 1.794

    In this study we present a flexible and adaptable fabrication method to create complex hierarchical structures over inherently hydrophobic resist materials. We have tested these surfaces for their superhydrophobic behaviour and successfully verified their self-cleaning properties. The followed approach allow us to design and produce superhydrophobic surfaces in a reproducible manner. We have analysed different combination of hierarchical micro-nanostructures for their application to self-cleaning surfaces. A static contact angle value of 170 with a hysteresis of 4 was achieved without the need of any additional chemical treatment on the fabricated hierarchical structures. Dynamic effects were analysed on these surfaces, obtaining a remarkable self-cleaning effect as well as a good robustness over impacting droplets. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • Mechanical oscillations in lasing microspheres

    Toncelli A., Capuj N.E., Garrido B., Sledzinska M., Sotomayor-Torres C.M., Tredicucci A., Navarro-Urrios D. Journal of Applied Physics; 122 (5, 053101) 2017. 10.1063/1.4997182. IF: 2.068

    We investigate the feasibility of activating coherent mechanical oscillations in lasing microspheres by modulating the laser emission at a mechanical eigenfrequency. To this aim, 1.5%Nd3+:Barium- Titanium-Silicate microspheres with diameters around 50 lm were used as high quality factor (Q>106) whispering gallery mode lasing cavities. We have implemented a pump-and-probe technique in which the pump laser used to excite the Nd3+ ions is focused on a single microsphere with a microscope objective and a probe laser excites a specific optical mode with the evanescent field of a tapered fibre. The studied microspheres show monomode and multi-mode lasing action, which can be modulated in the best case up to 10 MHz. We have optically transduced thermally activated mechanical eigenmodes appearing in the 50-70MHz range, the frequency of which decreases with increasing the size of the microspheres. In a pump-and-probe configuration, we observed modulation of the probe signal up to the maximum pump modulation frequency of our experimental setup, i.e., 20 MHz. This modulation decreases with frequency and is unrelated to lasing emission, pump scattering, or thermal effects. We associate this effect to free-carrier-dispersion induced by multiphoton pump light absorption. On the other hand, we conclude that, in our current experimental conditions, it was not possible to resonantly excite the mechanical modes. Finally, we discuss on how to overcome these limitations by increasing the modulation frequency of the lasing emission and decreasing the frequency of the mechanical eigenmodes displaying a strong degree of optomechanical coupling.

  • Nonlinear dynamics and chaos in an optomechanical beam

    Navarro-Urrios D., Capuj N.E., Colombano M.F., Garciá P.D., Sledzinska M., Alzina F., Griol A., Martínez A., Sotomayor-Torres C.M. Nature Communications; 8 ( 14965) 2017. 10.1038/ncomms14965. IF: 12.124

    Optical nonlinearities, such as thermo-optic mechanisms and free-carrier dispersion, are often considered unwelcome effects in silicon-based resonators and, more specifically, optomechanical cavities, since they affect, for instance, the relative detuning between an optical resonance and the excitation laser. Here, we exploit these nonlinearities and their intercoupling with the mechanical degrees of freedom of a silicon optomechanical nanobeam to unveil a rich set of fundamentally different complex dynamics. By smoothly changing the parameters of the excitation laser we demonstrate accurate control to activate two- A nd four-dimensional limit cycles, a period-doubling route and a six-dimensional chaos. In addition, by scanning the laser parameters in opposite senses we demonstrate bistability and hysteresis between two- A nd four-dimensional limit cycles, between different coherent mechanical states and between four-dimensional limit cycles and chaos. Our findings open new routes towards exploiting silicon-based optomechanical photonic crystals as a versatile building block to be used in neurocomputational networks and for chaos-based applications. © 2017 The Author(s).

  • Optomechanical coupling in the Anderson-localization regime

    García P.D., Bericat-Vadell R., Arregui G., Navarro-Urrios D., Colombano M., Alzina F., Sotomayor-Torres C.M. Physical Review B; 95 (11, 115129) 2017. 10.1103/PhysRevB.95.115129. IF: 3.836

    Optomechanical crystals, purposely designed and fabricated semiconductor nanostructures, are used to enhance the coupling between the electromagnetic field and the mechanical vibrations of matter at the nanoscale. However, in real optomechanical crystals, imperfections open extra channels where the transfer of energy is lost, reducing the optomechanical coupling efficiency. Here, we quantify the role of disorder in a paradigmatic one-dimensional optomechanical crystal with full phononic and photonic band gaps. We show how disorder can be exploited as a resource to enhance the optomechanical coupling beyond engineered structures, thus providing a new tool set for optomechanics. © 2017 American Physical Society.

  • Raman antenna effect from exciton-phonon coupling in organic semiconducting nanobelts

    Wang M., Gong Y., Alzina F., Svoboda O., Ballesteros B., Sotomayor Torres C.M., Xiao S., Zhang Z., He J. Nanoscale; 9 (48): 19328 - 19336. 2017. 10.1039/c7nr07212k. IF: 7.367

    The highly anisotropic interactions in organic semiconductors together with the soft character of organic materials lead to strong coupling between nuclear vibrations and exciton dynamics, which potentially results in anomalous electrical, optical and optoelectrical properties. Here, we report on the Raman antenna effect from organic semiconducting nanobelts 6,13-dichloropentacene (DCP), resulting from the coupling of molecular excitons and intramolecular phonons. The highly ordered crystalline structure in DCP nanobelts enables the precise polarization-resolved spectroscopic measurement. The angle-dependent Raman spectroscopy under resonant excitation shows that all Raman modes from the skeletal vibrations of DCP molecule act like a nearly perfect dipole antenna IRaman ∝ cos4(θ - 90), with almost zero (maximum) Raman scattering parallel (perpendicular) to the nanobelt's long-axis. The Raman antenna effect in DCP nanobelt is originated from the coupling between molecular skeletal vibrations and intramolecular exciton and the confinement of intermolecular excitons. It dramatically enhances the Raman polarization ratio (ρ =I∥/I⊥ > 25) and amplifies the anisotropy of the angle-dependent Raman scattering (κRaman = Imax/Imin > 12) of DCP nanobelts. These findings have crucial implications for fundamental understanding on the exciton-phonon coupling and its effects on the optical properties of organic semiconductors. © 2017 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Record Low Thermal Conductivity of Polycrystalline MoS2 Films: Tuning the Thermal Conductivity by Grain Orientation

    Sledzinska M., Quey R., Mortazavi B., Graczykowski B., Placidi M., Saleta Reig D., Navarro-Urrios D., Alzina F., Colombo L., Roche S., Sotomayor Torres C.M. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces; 9 (43): 37905 - 37911. 2017. 10.1021/acsami.7b08811. IF: 7.504

    We report a record low thermal conductivity in polycrystalline MoS2 obtained for ultrathin films with varying grain sizes and orientations. By optimizing the sulfurization parameters of nanometer-thick Mo layers, five MoS2 films containing a combination of horizontally and vertically oriented grains, with respect to the bulk (001) monocrystal, were grown. From transmission electron microscopy, the average grain size, typically below 10 nm, and proportion of differently oriented grains were extracted. The thermal conductivity of the suspended samples was extracted from a Raman laser-power-dependent study, and the lowest value of thermal conductivity of 0.27 W m-1 K-1, which reaches a similar value as that of Teflon, is obtained in a polycrystalline sample formed by a combination of horizontally and vertically oriented grains in similar proportion. Analysis by means of molecular dynamics and finite element method simulations confirm that such a grain arrangement leads to lower grain boundary conductance. We discuss the possible use of these thermal insulating films in the context of electronics and thermoelectricity. © 2017 American Chemical Society.

  • Thermal conductivity and air-mediated losses in periodic porous silicon membranes at high temperatures

    Graczykowski B., El Sachat A., Reparaz J.S., Sledzinska M., Wagner M.R., Chavez-Angel E., Wu Y., Volz S., Wu Y., Alzina F., Sotomayor Torres C.M. Nature Communications; 8 (1, 415) 2017. 10.1038/s41467-017-00115-4. IF: 12.124

    Heat conduction in silicon can be effectively engineered by means of sub-micrometre porous thin free-standing membranes. Tunable thermal properties make these structures good candidates for integrated heat management units such as waste heat recovery, rectification or efficient heat dissipation. However, possible applications require detailed thermal characterisation at high temperatures which, up to now, has been an experimental challenge. In this work we use the contactless two-laser Raman thermometry to study heat dissipation in periodic porous membranes at high temperatures via lattice conduction and air-mediated losses. We find the reduction of the thermal conductivity and its temperature dependence closely correlated with the structure feature size. On the basis of two-phonon Raman spectra, we attribute this behaviour to diffuse (incoherent) phonon-boundary scattering. Furthermore, we investigate and quantify the heat dissipation via natural air-mediated cooling, which can be tuned by engineering the porosity. © 2017 The Author(s).

  • Thermal conductivity of epitaxially grown InP: experiment and simulation

    Jaramillo-Fernandez J., Chavez-Angel E., Sanatinia R., Kataria H., Anand S., Lourdudoss S., Sotomayor-Torres C.M. CrystEngComm; 19 (14): 1879 - 1887. 2017. 10.1039/c6ce02642g. IF: 3.474

    The integration of III-V optoelectronic devices on silicon is confronted with the challenge of heat dissipation for reliable and stable operation. A thorough understanding and characterization of thermal transport is paramount for improved designs of, for example, viable III-V light sources on silicon. In this work, the thermal conductivity of heteroepitaxial laterally overgrown InP layers on silicon is experimentally investigated using microRaman thermometry. By examining InP mesa-like structures grown from trenches defined by a SiO2 mask, we found that the thermal conductivity decreases by about one third, compared to the bulk thermal conductivity of InP, with decreasing width from 400 to 250 nm. The high thermal conductivity of InP grown from 400 nm trenches was attributed to the lower defect density as the InP microcrystal becomes thicker. In this case, the thermal transport is dominated by phonon-phonon interactions as in a low defect-density monocrystalline bulk material, whereas for thinner InP layers grown from narrower trenches, the heat transfer is dominated by phonon scattering at the extended defects and InP/SiO2 interface. In addition to the nominally undoped sample, sulfur-doped (1 × 1018 cm−3) InP grown on Si was also studied. For the narrower doped InP microcrystals, the thermal conductivity decreased by a factor of two compared to the bulk value. Sources of errors in the thermal conductivity measurements are discussed. The experimental temperature rise was successfully simulated by the heat diffusion equation using the FEM. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Thermal transport in epitaxial Si1-xGe x alloy nanowires with varying composition and morphology

    Sachat A.E., Reparaz J.S., Spiece J., Alonso M.I., Goñi A.R., Garriga M., Vaccaro P.O., Wagner M.R., Kolosov O.V., Sotomayor Torres C.M., Alzina F. Nanotechnology; 28 (50, 505704) 2017. 10.1088/1361-6528/aa9497. IF: 3.440

    We report on structural, compositional, and thermal characterization of self-assembled in-plane epitaxial Si1-xGe x alloy nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si (001) substrates. The thermal properties were studied by means of scanning thermal microscopy (SThM), while the microstructural characteristics, the spatial distribution of the elemental composition of the alloy nanowires and the sample surface were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis. We provide new insights regarding the morphology of the in-plane nanostructures, their size-dependent gradient chemical composition, and the formation of a 5 nm thick wetting layer on the Si substrate surface. In addition, we directly probe heat transfer between a heated scanning probe sensor and Si1-xGe x alloy nanowires of different morphological characteristics and we quantify their thermal resistance variations. We correlate the variations of the thermal signal to the dependence of the heat spreading with the cross-sectional geometry of the nanowires using finite element method simulations. With this method we determine the thermal conductivity of the nanowires with values in the range of 2-3 W m-1 K-1. These results provide valuable information in growth processes and show the great capability of the SThM technique in ambient environment for nanoscale thermal studies, otherwise not possible using conventional techniques. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • Unveiled electric profiles within hydrogen bonds suggest DNA base pairs with similar bond strengths

    Ruiz-Blanco Y.B., Almeida Y., Sotomayor-Torres C.M., García Y. PLoS ONE; 12 (10, e0185638) 2017. 10.1371/journal.pone.0185638. IF: 2.806

    Electrical forces are the background of all the interactions occurring in biochemical systems. From here and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce the first description of electric field profiles with intrabond resolution to support a characterization of single bond forces attending to its electrical origin. This fundamental issue has eluded a physical description so far. Our method is applied to describe hydrogen bonds (HB) in DNA base pairs. Numerical results reveal that base pairs in DNA could be equivalent considering HB strength contributions, which challenges previous interpretations of thermodynamic properties of DNA based on the assumption that Adenine/Thymine pairs are weaker than Guanine/Cytosine pairs due to the sole difference in the number of HB. Thus, our methodology provides solid foundations to support the development of extended models intended to go deeper into the molecular mechanisms of DNA functioning. © 2017 Ruiz-Blanco et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


  • A hybrid organic-inorganic layered TiO2 based nanocomposite for sunlight photocatalysis

    Benavente E., Maldonado C., Devis S., Diaz L., Lozano H., Sotomayor-Torres C., González G. RSC Advances; 6 (22): 18538 - 18541. 2016. 10.1039/c5ra26981d. IF: 3.289

    A novel hybrid nanocomposite constituted of single TiO2 nanosheets sandwiched between stearic acid self-assembled monolayers was synthesized and tested in the photodegradation of methylene blue under sunlight. The product showed better photocatalytic performance than anatase under similar conditions, which may be further improved through sensitization with cadmium sulfide. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  • Fabrication of phononic crystals on free-standing silicon membranes

    Sledzinska M., Graczykowski B., Alzina F., Santiso Lopez J., Sotomayor Torres C.M. Microelectronic Engineering; 149: 41 - 45. 2016. 10.1016/j.mee.2015.09.004. IF: 1.277

    Free-standing Si films have been and remain an excellent example to study experimentally the effect of the reduction of the characteristic size on the phonon dispersion relation. A step further in geometrical complexity and, therefore, in increasing the control and manipulation of phonons is achieved by introducing periodicity in the medium to form phononic crystals. Here we report on the development of the fabrication process of large-area, solid-air and solid-solid two-dimensional phononic crystals, directly on free-standing, single crystalline silicon membranes. The patterning of the membranes involved electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching for holes or metal evaporation and lift-off for pillars. The fabrication was possible due to the external strain induced on the membrane in order to reduce the buckling, which is typically found in large area free-standing structures. As a result, we obtained 250 nm thick structured membranes with patterned areas up to 100 × 100 μm, feature size between 100 and 300 nm and periodicity between 300 and 500 nm. The changes in dispersion relations of hypersonic acoustic phonons due to nanopatterning in free-standing silicon membranes were measured by Brillouin light scattering and the results were compared with numerical calculations by finite elements method. Information on phonon dispersion relation combined with a reliable fabrication process for large-scale structures opens a way for phonon engineering in more complex devices. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Finite element analysis of true and pseudo surface acoustic waves in one-dimensional phononic crystals

    Graczykowski B., Alzina F., Gomis-Bresco J., Sotomayor Torres C.M. Journal of Applied Physics; 119 (2, 025308) 2016. 10.1063/1.4939825. IF: 2.101

    In this paper, we report a theoretical investigation of surface acoustic waves propagating in one-dimensional phononic crystal. Using finite element method eigenfrequency and frequency response studies, we develop two model geometries suitable to distinguish true and pseudo (or leaky) surface acoustic waves and determine their propagation through finite size phononic crystals, respectively. The novelty of the first model comes from the application of a surface-like criterion and, additionally, functional damping domain. Exemplary calculated band diagrams show sorted branches of true and pseudo surface acoustic waves and their quantified surface confinement. The second model gives a complementary study of transmission, reflection, and surface-to-bulk losses of Rayleigh surface waves in the case of a phononic crystal with a finite number of periods. Here, we demonstrate that a non-zero transmission within non-radiative band gaps can be carried via leaky modes originating from the coupling of local resonances with propagating waves in the substrate. Finally, we show that the transmission, reflection, and surface-to-bulk losses can be effectively optimised by tuning the geometrical properties of a stripe. © 2016 AIP Publishing LLC.

  • Measurement and modeling of the effective thermal conductivity of sintered silver pastes

    Ordonez-Miranda J., Hermens M., Nikitin I., Kouznetsova V.G., Van Der Sluis O., Ras M.A., Reparaz J.S., Wagner M.R., Sledzinska M., Gomis-Bresco J., Sotomayor Torres C.M., Wunderle B., Volz S. International Journal of Thermal Sciences; 108: 185 - 194. 2016. 10.1109/THERMINIC.2015.7389630. IF: 2.769

    The effective thermal conductivity of sintered porous pastes of silver is modeled through two theoretical methods and measured by means of three experimental techniques. The first model is based on the differential effective medium theory and provides a simple analytical description considering the air pores like ellipsoidal voids of different sizes, while the second one arises from the analysis of the scanning-electron-microscope images of the paste cross-sections through the finite element method. The predictions of both approaches are consistent with each other and show that the reduction of the thermal conductivity of porous pastes can be minimized with spherical pores and maximized with pancake-shaped ones, which are the most efficient to block the thermal conducting pathways. A thermal conductivity of 151.6 W/m K is numerically determined for a sintered silver sample with 22% of porosity. This thermal conductivity agrees quite well with the one measured by the Lateral Thermal Interface Material Analysis for a suspended sample and matches, within an experimental uncertainty smaller than 16%, with the values obtained by means of Raman thermometry and the 3u technique, for two samples buried in a silicon chip. The consistence between our theoretical and experimental results demonstrates the good predictive performance of our theoretical models to describe the thermal behavior of porous thermal interface materials and to guide their engineering with a desired thermal conductivity. © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS.

  • Nanophononics: State of the art and perspectives

    Volz S., Ordonez-Miranda J., Shchepetov A., Prunnila M., Ahopelto J., Pezeril T., Vaudel G., Gusev V., Ruello P., Weig E.M., Schubert M., Hettich M., Grossman M., Dekorsy T., Alzina F., Graczykowski B., Chavez-Angel E., Sebastian Reparaz J., Wagner M.R., Sotomayor-Torres C.M., Xiong S., Neogi S., Donadio D. European Physical Journal B; 89 (1, 15) 2016. 10.1140/epjb/e2015-60727-7. IF: 1.223

    Understanding and controlling vibrations in condensed matter is emerging as an essential necessity both at fundamental level and for the development of a broad variety of technological applications. Intelligent design of the band structure and transport properties of phonons at the nanoscale and of their interactions with electrons and photons impact the efficiency of nanoelectronic systems and thermoelectric materials, permit the exploration of quantum phenomena with micro- and nanoscale resonators, and provide new tools for spectroscopy and imaging. In this colloquium we assess the state of the art of nanophononics, describing the recent achievements and the open challenges in nanoscale heat transport, coherent phonon generation and exploitation, and in nano- and optomechanics. We also underline the links among the diverse communities involved in the study of nanoscale phonons, pointing out the common goals and opportunities. © The Author(s) 2016.

  • Nanoscale pillar hypersonic surface phononic crystals

    Yudistira D., Boes A., Graczykowski B., Alzina F., Yeo L.Y., Sotomayor Torres C.M., Mitchell A. Physical Review B; 94 (9, 094304) 2016. 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.094304.

    We report on nanoscale pillar-based hypersonic phononic crystals in single crystal Z-cut lithium niobate. The phononic crystal is formed by a two-dimensional periodic array of nearly cylindrical nanopillars 240 nm in diameter and 225 nm in height, arranged in a triangular lattice with a 300-nm lattice constant. The nanopillars are fabricated by the recently introduced nanodomain engineering via laser irradiation of patterned chrome followed by wet etching. Numerical simulations and direct measurements using Brillouin light scattering confirm the simultaneous existence of nonradiative complete surface phononic band gaps. The band gaps are found below the sound line at hypersonic frequencies in the range 2-7 GHz, formed from local resonances and Bragg scattering. These hypersonic structures are realized directly in the piezoelectric material lithium niobate enabling phonon manipulation at significantly higher frequencies than previously possible with this platform, opening new opportunities for many applications in plasmonic, optomechanic, microfluidic, and thermal engineering. © 2016 American Physical Society.

  • Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    García Y., Ruiz-Blanco Y.B., Marrero-Ponce Y., Sotomayor-Torres C.M. Scientific Reports; 6 ( 34616) 2016. 10.1038/srep34616. IF: 5.228

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ∼pm V-1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies. © 2016 The Author(s).

  • Self-sustained coherent phonon generation in optomechanical cavities

    Navarro-Urrios D., Gomis-Bresco J., Alzina F., Capuj N.E., García P.D., Colombano M.F., Chavez-Angel E., Sotomayor-Torres C.M. Journal of Optics (United Kingdom); 18 (9, 094006) 2016. 10.1088/2040-8978/18/9/094006. IF: 1.847

    Optical forces can set tiny objects in states of mechanical self-sustained oscillation, spontaneously generating periodic signals by extracting power from steady sources. Miniaturized self-sustained coherent phonon sources are interesting for applications such as mass-force sensing, intra-chip metrology and intra-chip time-keeping among others. In this paper, we review several mechanisms and techniques that can drive a mechanical mode into the lasing regime by exploiting the radiation pressure force in optomechanical cavities, namely stimulated emission, dynamical back-action, forward stimulated Brillouin scattering and self-pulsing. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • Thermal transport in suspended silicon membranes measured by laser-induced transient gratings

    Vega-Flick A., Duncan R.A., Eliason J.K., Cuffe J., Johnson J.A., Peraud J.-P.M., Zeng L., Lu Z., Maznev A.A., Wang E.N., Alvarado-Gil J.J., Sledzinska M., Sotomayor Torres C.M., Chen G., Nelson K.A. AIP Advances; 6 (12, 121903) 2016. 10.1063/1.4968610. IF: 1.444

    Studying thermal transport at the nanoscale poses formidable experimental challenges due both to the physics of the measurement process and to the issues of accuracy and reproducibility. The laser-induced transient thermal grating (TTG) technique permits non-contact measurements on nanostructured samples without a need for metal heaters or any other extraneous structures, offering the advantage of inherently high absolute accuracy. We present a review of recent studies of thermal transport in nanoscale silicon membranes using the TTG technique. An overview of the methodology, including an analysis of measurements errors, is followed by a discussion of new findings obtained from measurements on both "solid" and nanopatterned membranes. The most important results have been a direct observation of non-diffusive phonon-mediated transport at room temperature and measurements of thickness-dependent thermal conductivity of suspended membranes across a wide thickness range, showing good agreement with first-principles-based theory assuming diffuse scattering at the boundaries. Measurements on a membrane with a periodic pattern of nanosized holes (135nm) indicated fully diffusive transport and yielded thermal diffusivity values in agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. Based on the results obtained to-date, we conclude that room-temperature thermal transport in membrane-based silicon nanostructures is now reasonably well understood. © 2016 Author(s).

  • Titanium particle incorporation in block copolymer templates

    Kreuzer M., Simão C., Diaz A., Sotomayor Torres C.M. Polymer (United Kingdom); 105: 195 - 202. 2016. 10.1016/j.polymer.2016.10.009. IF: 3.586

    Template-directed formation of titanium structures on block copolymer templates has been recently reported [1]. Here, the incorporation of titanium in a thin film template is studied. We show that the surface free energy contrast in microphase-separated polystyrene-block-polyethylene oxide templates is not limited to the template film surface, but directs the assembly of titanium atoms in the template thin film. The details of the self-assembly of titanium particles on the block copolymer nanostructured surface and inside the 3D film structure are studied with selected amounts of titanium. Evaporated titanium preferentially wets the polystyrene block of the block copolymer film and diffuses inside the film, conserving the block copolymer nanostructure. Increasing deposition leads to the formation of a mesoporous titanium layer on the block copolymer film, which reproduces that of the underlying template, in this particular case with a thickness of 12 nm and a periodic pore-to-pore distance of 35 nm. The formation of a mesoporous titanium layer prevents from further titanium diffusion inside the block copolymer film. The combination of the X-ray scattering techniques presented here provides sufficient sensitivity to follow the titanium formation in the three dimensional network of the block copolymer films. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  • Two-Dimensional Phononic Crystals: Disorder Matters

    Wagner M.R., Graczykowski B., Reparaz J.S., El Sachat A., Sledzinska M., Alzina F., Sotomayor Torres C.M. Nano Letters; 16 (9): 5661 - 5668. 2016. 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b02305. IF: 13.779

    The design and fabrication of phononic crystals (PnCs) hold the key to control the propagation of heat and sound at the nanoscale. However, there is a lack of experimental studies addressing the impact of order/disorder on the phononic properties of PnCs. Here, we present a comparative investigation of the influence of disorder on the hypersonic and thermal properties of two-dimensional PnCs. PnCs of ordered and disordered lattices are fabricated of circular holes with equal filling fractions in free-standing Si membranes. Ultrafast pump and probe spectroscopy (asynchronous optical sampling) and Raman thermometry based on a novel two-laser approach are used to study the phononic properties in the gigahertz (GHz) and terahertz (THz) regime, respectively. Finite element method simulations of the phonon dispersion relation and three-dimensional displacement fields furthermore enable the unique identification of the different hypersonic vibrations. The increase of surface roughness and the introduction of short-range disorder are shown to modify the phonon dispersion and phonon coherence in the hypersonic (GHz) range without affecting the room-temperature thermal conductivity. On the basis of these findings, we suggest a criteria for predicting phonon coherence as a function of roughness and disorder. © 2016 American Chemical Society.


  • A diffractometer for quality control in nano fabrication processing based on subwavelength diffraction

    Kreuzer M., Gomis Bresco J., Sledzinska M., Sotomayor Torres C.M. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering; 9424 (942426) 2015. 10.1117/12.2085924. IF: 0.000

    Mass production of nanostructured surfaces relies on the periodic repetition of micrometre scale patterns. A unit cell with nanometre features in the micrometre size range is repeated thousands of times. The ensemble can used as a diffraction grating for visible light. The relative intensity distribution of the diffraction orders is characteristic for the grating and sensitive to nanometre scale changes. A newly designed subwavelength diffraction setup allows the measurement in real time of the diffraction pattern of an illuminated polymer grating with only one detector image. The setup records diffraction patterns of, for example, polymer gratings with intentionally low scattering contrast and line features ranging from 610 to 80 nm. Thus, sub-100 nm features can be traced. The comparison of the measured diffraction patterns with simulated patterns allows to sense nanometre scale deviations from fabrication goals. © 2015 SPIE.

  • A Hooke's law-based approach to protein folding rate

    Ruiz-Blanco Y.B., Marrero-Ponce Y., Prieto P.J., Salgado J., García Y., Sotomayor-Torres C.M. Journal of Theoretical Biology; 364: 407 - 417. 2015. 10.1016/j.jtbi.2014.09.002. IF: 2.116

    Kinetics is a key aspect of the renowned protein folding problem. Here, we propose a comprehensive approach to folding kinetics where a polypeptide chain is assumed to behave as an elastic material described by the Hooke[U+05F3]s law. A novel parameter called elastic-folding constant results from our model and is suggested to distinguish between protein with two-state and multi-state folding pathways. A contact-free descriptor, named folding degree, is introduced as a suitable structural feature to study protein-folding kinetics. This approach generalizes the observed correlations between varieties of structural descriptors with the folding rate constant. Additionally several comparisons among structural classes and folding mechanisms were carried out showing the good performance of our model with proteins of different types. The present model constitutes a simple rationale for the structural and energetic factors involved in protein folding kinetics. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  • A self-stabilized coherent phonon source driven by optical forces

    Navarro-Urrios D., Capuj N.E., Gomis-Bresco J., Alzina F., Pitanti A., Griol A., Martínez A., Sotomayor Torres C.M. Scientific Reports; 5 ( 15733) 2015. 10.1038/srep15733. IF: 5.578

    We report a novel injection scheme that allows for phonon lasing in a one-dimensional opto-mechanical photonic crystal, in a sideband unresolved regime and with cooperativity values as low as 10'2. It extracts energy from a cw infrared laser source and is based on the triggering of a thermo-optical/free-carrier-dispersion self-pulsing limit-cycle, which anharmonically modulates the radiation pressure force. The large amplitude of the coherent mechanical motion acts as a feedback that stabilizes and entrains the self-pulsing oscillations to simple fractions of the mechanical frequency. A manifold of frequency-entrained regions with two different mechanical modes (at 54 and 122MHz) are observed as a result of the wide tuneability of the natural frequency of the self-pulsing. The system operates at ambient conditions of pressure and temperature in a silicon platform, which enables its exploitation in sensing, intra-chip metrology or time-keeping applications.

  • Electrical properties and strain distribution of Ge suspended structures

    Shah V.A., Rhead S.D., Finch J., Myronov M., Reparaz J.S., Morris R.J., Wilson N.R., Kachkanov V., Dolbnya I.P., Halpin J.E., Patchett D., Allred P., Colston G., Sawhney K.J.S., Sotomayor Torres C.M., Leadley D.R. Solid-State Electronics; 108: 13 - 18. 2015. 10.1016/j.sse.2014.12.004. IF: 1.504

    Germanium membranes and microstructures of 50-1000 nm thickness have been fabricated by a combination of epitaxial growth on a Si substrate and simple etching processes. The strain in these structures has been measured by high-resolution micro-X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The strain in these membranes is extremely isotropic and the surface is observed to be very smooth, with an RMS roughness below 2 nm. The process of membrane fabrication also serves to remove the misfit dislocation network that originally forms at the Si/Ge interface, with benefits for the mechanical, optical and electrical properties of the crystalline membranes. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • In-line metrology setup for periodic nanostructures based on sub-wavelength diffraction

    Kreuzer M., Gomis Bresco J., Sledzinska M., Sotomayor Torres C.M. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering; 9628 ( 96281Q) 2015. 10.1117/12.2191346. IF: 0.000

    The analysis of diffracted light from periodic structures is shown to be a versatile metrology technique applicable to inline metrology for periodic nanostructures. We show that 10 nm changes in periodic structures can be traced optically by means of sub-wavelength diffraction. Polymer gratings were fabricated by electron beam lithography. The gratings have a common periodicity of 6 μm, but different line width, ranging from 370 to 550 nm in 10 nm steps. A comparison between the resulting diffraction patterns shows marked differences in intensity which are used to sense nanometre scale deviations in periodic structures. © 2015 SPIE.

  • Mapping self-assembled dots and line arrays by image analysis for quantification of defect density and alignment

    Simao C., Tuchapsky D., Khunsin W., Amann A., Morris M.A., Sotomayor Torres C.M. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering; 9423 (942322) 2015. 10.1117/12.2085748. IF: 0.000

    Bottom-up alternative lithographic masks from directed self-assembly systems have been extending the limits of critical dimensions in a cost-effective manner although great challenges in controlling defectivity remain open. Particularly, defectivity and dimensional metrology are two main challenges in lithography due to the increasing miniaturisation of circuits. To gain insights about the percentage of alignment, defectivity and order quantification, directed self-assembly block copolymer fingerprints were investigated via an image analysis methodology. Here we present the analysis of hexagonal phase of polystyrene-b-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-b-PDMS) forming linear patterns in topological substrates. From our methodology, we have performed dimensional metrology estimating pitch size and error, and the linewidth of the lines was estimated. In parallel, the methodology allowed us identification and quantification of typical defects observable in self-assembly, such as turning points, disclination or branching points, break or lone points and end points. The methodology presented here yields high volume statistical data useful for advancing dimensional metrology and defect analysis of self- and directed assembly systems. © 2015 SPIE.

  • Nanoparticle shape anisotropy and photoluminescence properties: Europium containing ZnO as a Model Case

    Gerigk M., Ehrenreich P., Wagner M.R., Wimmer I., Reparaz J.S., Sotomayor Torres C.M., Schmidt-Mende L., Polarz S. Nanoscale; 7 (40): 16969 - 16982. 2015. 10.1039/c5nr02550h. IF: 7.394

    The precise control over electronic and optical properties of semiconductor (SC) materials is pivotal for a number of important applications like in optoelectronics, photocatalysis or in medicine. It is well known that the incorporation of heteroelements (doping as a classical case) is a powerful method for adjusting and enhancing the functionality of semiconductors. Independent from that, there already has been a tremendous progress regarding the synthesis of differently sized and shaped SC nanoparticles, and quantum-size effects are well documented experimentally and theoretically. Whereas size and shape control of nanoparticles work fairly well for the pure compounds, the presence of a heteroelement is problematic because the impurities interfere strongly with bottom up approaches applied for the synthesis of such particles, and effects are even stronger, when the heteroelement is aimed to be incorporated into the target lattice for chemical doping. Therefore, realizing coincident shape control of nanoparticle colloids and their doping still pose major difficulties. Due to a special mechanism of the emulsion based synthesis method presented here, involving a gelation of emulsion droplets prior to crystallization of shape-anisotropic ZnO nanoparticles, heteroelements can be effectively entrapped inside the lattice. Different nanocrystal shapes such as nanorods, -prisms, -plates, and -spheres can be obtained, determined by the use of certain emulsification agents. The degree of morphologic alterations depends on the type of incorporated heteroelement Mn+, concentration, and it seems that some shapes are more tolerant against doping than others. Focus was then set on the incorporation of Eu3+ inside the ZnO particles, and it was shown that nanocrystal shape and aspect ratios could be adjusted while maintaining a fixed dopant level. Special PL properties could be observed implying energy transfer from ZnO excited near its band-gap (3.3 eV) to the Eu3+ states mediated by defect luminescence of the nanoparticles. Indications for an influence of shape on photoluminescence (PL) properties were found. Finally, rod-like Eu@ZnO colloids were used as tracers to investigate their uptake into biological samples like HeLa cells. The PL was sufficient for identifying green and red emission under visible light excitation. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Optical and mechanical properties of nanofibrillated cellulose: Toward a robust platform for next-generation green technologies

    Simão C.D., Reparaz J.S., Wagner M.R., Graczykowski B., Kreuzer M., Ruiz-Blanco Y.B., García Y., Malho J.-M., Goñi A.R., Ahopelto J., Sotomayor Torres C.M. Carbohydrate Polymers; 126: 40 - 46. 2015. 10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.03.032. IF: 4.074

    Nanofibrillated cellulose, a polymer that can be obtained from one of the most abundant biopolymers in nature, is being increasingly explored due to its outstanding properties for packaging and device applications. Still, open challenges in engineering its intrinsic properties remain to address. To elucidate the optical and mechanical stability of nanofibrillated cellulose as a standalone platform, herein we report on three main findings: (i) for the first time an experimental determination of the optical bandgap of nanofibrillated cellulose, important for future modeling purposes, based on the onset of the optical bandgap of the nanofibrillated cellulose film at Eg ≈ 275 nm (4.5 eV), obtained using absorption and cathodoluminescence measurements. In addition, comparing this result with ab-initio calculations of the electronic structure the exciton binding energy is estimated to be Eex ≈ 800 meV; (ii) hydrostatic pressure experiments revealed that nanofibrillated cellulose is structurally stable at least up to 1.2 GPa; and (iii) surface elastic properties with repeatability better than 5% were observed under moisture cycles with changes of the Young modulus as large as 65%. The results obtained show the precise determination of significant properties as elastic properties and interactions that are compared with similar works and, moreover, demonstrate that nanofibrillated cellulose properties can be reversibly controlled, supporting the extended potential of nanofibrillated cellulose as a robust platform for green-technology applications. ©2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • Phonon dispersion in hypersonic two-dimensional phononic crystal membranes

    Graczykowski B., Sledzinska M., Alzina F., Gomis-Bresco J., Reparaz J.S., Wagner M.R., Sotomayor Torres C.M. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; 91 (7, 075414) 2015. 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.075414. IF: 3.736

    We investigate experimentally and theoretically the acoustic phonon propagation in two-dimensional phononic crystal membranes. Solid-air and solid-solid phononic crystals were made of square lattices of holes and Au pillars in and on 250 nm thick single crystalline Si membrane, respectively. The hypersonic phonon dispersion was investigated using Brillouin light scattering. Volume reduction (holes) or mass loading (pillars) accompanied with second-order periodicity and local resonances are shown to significantly modify the propagation of thermally activated GHz phonons. We use numerical modeling based on the finite element method to analyze the experimental results and determine polarization, symmetry, or three-dimensional localization of observed modes. © 2015 American Physical Society.

  • Reconstructing phonon mean-free-path contributions to thermal conductivity using nanoscale membranes

    Cuffe J., Eliason J.K., Maznev A.A., Collins K.C., Johnson J.A., Shchepetov A., Prunnila M., Ahopelto J., Sotomayor Torres C.M., Chen G., Nelson K.A. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; 91 (24, 245423) 2015. 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.245423. IF: 3.736

    Knowledge of the mean-free-path distribution of heat-carrying phonons is key to understanding phonon-mediated thermal transport. We demonstrate that thermal conductivity measurements of thin membranes spanning a wide thickness range can be used to characterize how bulk thermal conductivity is distributed over phonon mean free paths. A noncontact transient thermal grating technique was used to measure the thermal conductivity of suspended Si membranes ranging from 15-1500 nm in thickness. A decrease in the thermal conductivity from 74-13% of the bulk value is observed over this thickness range, which is attributed to diffuse phonon boundary scattering. Due to the well-defined relation between the membrane thickness and phonon mean-free-path suppression, combined with the range and accuracy of the measurements, we can reconstruct the bulk thermal conductivity accumulation vs. phonon mean free path, and compare with theoretical models. © 2015 American Physical Society.

  • Residual layer-free Reverse Nanoimprint Lithography on silicon and metal-coated substrates

    Fernández A., Medina J., Benkel C., Guttmann M., Bilenberg B., Thamdrup L.H., Nielsen T., Sotomayor Torres C.M., Kehagias N. Microelectronic Engineering; 141: 56 - 61. 2015. 10.1016/j.mee.2014.11.025. IF: 1.197

    In this work we demonstrate that Reverse Nanoimprint Lithography is a feasible and flexible lithography technique applicable to the transfer of micro and nano polymer structures with no residual layer over areas of cm2 areas on silicon, metal and non-planar substrates. We used a flexible polydimethylsiloxane stamp with hydrophobic features. We present residual layer-free patterns imprinted using a commercial poly(methylmethacrylate) thermoplastic polymer over silicon, nickel and pre-patterned substrates. Our versatile patterning technology is adaptable to free form nano structuring and has coupling to adhesion technologies. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Structural characterisation of slightly Fe-doped SrTiO3 grown via a sol–gel hydrothermal synthesis

    Fuentes S., Muñoz P., Barraza N., Chávez-Ángel E., Sotomayor Torres C.M. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology; 75 (3): 593 - 601. 2015. 10.1007/s10971-015-3730-4. IF: 1.532

    Abstract: A detailed structural study of the incorporation of Fe into SrTiO3 nanoparticles is reported. Slightly iron-doped strontium titanate nanoparticles with 0, 1, 3 and 5 mol% concentration of iron were grown using a sol–gel hydrothermal process and characterised using Raman scattering, X-ray photoelectron and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. The amorphisation of the nanostructures was observed as the iron content increased, which was confirmed by the TEM images. The XPS results indicated that the oxidation states of the Sr atoms were maintained in 2+. However, a mixture of Fe3+ and Fe4+ atoms was observed as the Fe content increased, resulting in a significant number of oxygen vacancies in the perovskite structure. The analysis of Raman spectra indicated that the intensity, linewidth and frequency shift of the TO4 phonon can be used as an indicator of the Fe content as well as a local temperature probe for future thermal analysis. Graphical abstract: Temperature evolution of the Raman spectra of STO:Fe 1 mol%. The peaks with star correspond to the second-order processes. (b) Temperature dependence of the TO4 phonon mode. Blue dots denote measured Raman spectra, and the red solid lines are the Lorentzian fits to respective spectra.[Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  • Tuning Thermal Transport in Ultrathin Silicon Membranes by Surface Nanoscale Engineering

    Neogi S., Reparaz J.S., Pereira L.F.C., Graczykowski B., Wagner M.R., Sledzinska M., Shchepetov A., Prunnila M., Ahopelto J., Sotomayor-Torres C.M., Donadio D. ACS Nano; 9 (4): 3820 - 3828. 2015. 10.1021/nn506792d. IF: 12.881

    A detailed understanding of the connections of fabrication and processing to structural and thermal properties of low-dimensional nanostructures is essential to design materials and devices for phononics, nanoscale thermal management, and thermoelectric applications. Silicon provides an ideal platform to study the relations between structure and heat transport since its thermal conductivity can be tuned over 2 orders of magnitude by nanostructuring. Combining realistic atomistic modeling and experiments, we unravel the origin of the thermal conductivity reduction in ultrathin suspended silicon membranes, down to a thickness of 4 nm. Heat transport is mostly controlled by surface scattering: rough layers of native oxide at surfaces limit the mean free path of thermal phonons below 100 nm. Removing the oxide layers by chemical processing allows us to tune the thermal conductivity over 1 order of magnitude. Our results guide materials design for future phononic applications, setting the length scale at which nanostructuring affects thermal phonons most effectively. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


  • A novel contactless technique for thermal field mapping and thermal conductivity determination: Two-Laser Raman Thermometry

    Reparaz, J.S.; Chavez-Angel, E.; Wagner, M.R.; Graczykowski, B.; Gomis-Bresco, J.; Alzina, F.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M. Review of Scientific Instruments; 2014. 10.1063/1.4867166. IF: 1.584

  • A one-dimensional optomechanical crystal with a complete phononic band gap

    Gomis-Bresco, J.; Navarro-Urrios, D.; Oudich, M.; El-Jallal, S.; Griol, A.; Puerto, D.; Chavez, E.; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Alzina, F.; Martinez, A.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M. Nature Communications; 2014. 10.1038/ncomms5452. IF: 10.742

  • A physics-based scoring function for protein structural decoys: Dynamic testing on targets of CASP-ROLL

    Ruiz-Blanco, Y.B.; Marrero-Ponce, Y.; García, Y.; Puris, A.; Bello, R.; Green, J.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M. Chemical Physics Letters; 610-611: 135 - 140. 2014. 10.1016/j.cplett.2014.07.014. IF: 1.991

  • A Study of the Kinetics and Mechanism of Rapid Self- assembly in Block Copolymer Thin Films during ¿Solvo-microwave¿ Annealing

    Mokarian-Tabari, P. ; Cummins, C. ; Rasappa, S. ; Simão, C. C. D.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.; Holmes, J. D.; Morris, M. A. Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids; 30 (35): 10728 - 10739. 2014. 10.1021/la503137q. IF: 4.384

  • Acoustic phonon propagation in ultra-thin Si membranes under biaxial stress field

    Graczykowski, B. ; Gomis-Bresco, J.; Alzina, F.; Reparaz, J.S.; Shchepetov, A.; Prunnila, M.; Ahopelto, J.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M. New Journal of Physics; 2014. 10.1088/1367-2630/16/7/073024. IF: 3.671

  • Defect analysis and alignment quantification of line arrays prepared by directed self-assembly of a block copolymer

    Simao, C.; Tuchapsky, D.; Khunsin, W.; Amann, A.; Morris, M.A.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering; 2014. . IF: 0.000

  • Dynamical back-action at 5.5 GHz in a corrugated optomechanical beam

    Navarro-Urrios, D.; Gomis-Bresco, J.; El-Jallal, S.; Oudich, M.; Pitanti, A.; Capuj, N.; Tredicucci, A.; Alzina, F.; Griol, A.; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Martínez, A.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M. AIP Advances; 2014. 10.1063/1.4902171. IF: 1.590

  • Embedded inkjet printed silver grids for ITO-free organic solar cells with high fill factor

    Burgués-Ceballos, I.; Kehagias, N.; Sotomayor-Torres, C.M.; Campoy-Quiles, M.; Lacharmoise, P.D. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells; 127: 50 - 57. 2014. 10.1016/j.solmat.2014.03.024. IF: 5.030

  • Formation of Titanium Nanostructures on Block Copolymer Templates with Varying Molecular Weights

    Kreuzer, M.; Simão, C.; Diaz, A.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M. Macromolecules; 47 (24): 8691 - 8699. 2014. 10.1021/ma501605s. IF: 5.927

  • High quality single crystal Ge nano-membranes for opto-electronic integrated circuitry

    Shah, V.A.; Rhead, S.D.; Halpin, J.E.; Trushkevych, O.; Chavez-Angel, E.; Shchepetov, A.; Kachkanov, V.; Wilson, N.R.; Myronov, M.; Reparaz, J.S.; Edwards, R.S.; Wagner, M.R.; Alzina, F.; Dolbnya, I.P.; Patchett, D.H.; Allred, P.S.; Prest, M.J.; Gammon, P.M.; Prunnila, M.; Whall, T.E.; Parker, E.H.C.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M.; Leadley, D.R. Journal of Applied Physics; 2014. 10.1063/1.4870807. IF: 2.185

  • Hypersonic phonon propagation in one-dimensional surface phononic crystal

    Graczykowski, B.; Sledzinska, M.; Kehagias, N.; Alzina, F.; Reparaz, J.S.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M. Applied Physics Letters; 2014. 10.1063/1.4870045. IF: 3.515

  • Modification of Akhieser mechanism in Si nanomembranes and thermal conductivity dependence of the Q-factor of high frequency nanoresonators

    Chávez-Ángel, E.; Zarate, R.A.; Gomis-Bresco, J.; Alzina, F.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M. Semiconductor Science and Technology; 2014. 10.1088/0268-1242/29/12/124010. IF: 2.206

  • Nanoarchitecture effects on persistent room temperature photoconductivity and thermal conductivity in ceramic semiconductors: Mesoporous, yolk-shell, and hollow ZnO spheres

    Dilger, S.; Wessig, M.; Wagner, M.R.; Reparaz, J.S.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M.; Qijun, L.; Dekorsy, T.; Polarz, S. Crystal Growth and Design; 14 (9): 4593 - 4601. 2014. 10.1021/cg500680g. IF: 4.558

  • Nanostructured p-type Cr/V2O5 thin films with boosted thermoelectric properties

    Loureiro, J.; Santos, J.R.; Nogueira, A.; Wyczisk, F.; Divay, L.; Reparaz, S.; Alzina, F.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M.; Cuffe, J.; Montemor, F.; Martins, R.; Ferreira, I. Journal of Materials Chemistry A; 2 (18): 6456 - 6462. 2014. 10.1039/c3ta15168a. IF: 0.000

  • Optomechanic interaction in a corrugated phoxonic nanobeam cavity

    Oudich, M.; El-Jallal, S.; Pennec, Y. ;Djafari-Rouhani, B. ; Gomis-Bresco, J. ; Navarro-Urrios, D. ; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.; Martínez, A.; Makhoute, A. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; 2014. 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.245122. IF: 3.664

  • Order and defectivity nanometrology by image processing and analysis of sub-20 nm BCPs features for lithographic applications

    Simao, C.; Tuchapsky, D.; Khunsin, W.; Amann, A.; Morris, M.A.; Sotomayor Torres, C. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering; 2014. . IF: 0.000

  • Order quantification of hexagonal periodic arrays fabricated by in situ solvent-assisted nanoimprint lithography of block copolymers

    Simão, C.; Khunsin, W.; Kehagias, N.; Salaun, M.; Zelsmann, M.; Morris, M.A.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M. Nanotechnology; 2014. 10.1088/0957-4484/25/17/175703. IF: 3.672

  • Reduction of the thermal conductivity in free-standing silicon nano-membranes investigated by non-invasive Raman thermometry

    Chávez-Ángel, E.; Reparaz, J.S.; Gomis-Bresco, J.; Wagner, M.R.; Cuffe, J.; Graczykowski, B.; Shchepetov, A.; Jiang, H.; Prunnila, M.; Ahopelto, J.; Alzina, F.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M. APL Materials; 2014. 10.1063/1.4861796. IF: 0.000

  • Synthetic Routes for the Preparation of Ordered Vanadium Oxide Inverted Opal Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    Armstrong, E.; Khunsin, W.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M.; Osiaka, M.; O'Dwyera, C. ECS Transactions; 58 (25): 7 - 14. 2014. 10.1149/05825.0007ecst. IF: 0.000

  • Tensile strain mapping in flat germanium membranes

    Rhead, S.D.; Halpin, J.E.; Shah, V.A.; Myronov, M.; Patchett, D.H.; Allred, P.S.; Kachkanov, V.; Dolbnya, I.P.; Reparaz, J.S.; Wilson, N.R.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M.; Leadley, D.R. Applied Physics Letters; 2014. 10.1063/1.4874836. IF: 3.515

  • Transparent aluminium zinc oxide thin films with enhanced thermoelectric properties

    Loureiro, J.; Neves, N.; Barros, R.; Mateus, T.; Santos, R.; Filonovich, S.; Reparaz, S.; Sotomayor-Torres, C.M.; Wyczisk, F.; Divay, L.; Martins, R.; Ferreira, I. Journal of Materials Chemistry A; 2 (18): 6649 - 6655. 2014. 10.1039/c3ta15052f. IF: 0.000


  • Core-shell tin oxide, indium oxide, and indium tin oxide nanoparticles on silicon with tunable dispersion: Electrochemical and structural characteristics as a hybrid Li-ion battery anode

    Osiak, M.J.; Armstrong, E.; Kennedy, T.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M.; Ryan, K.M.; ODwyer, C. ACS applied materials & interfaces; 5 (16): 8195 - 8202. 2013. 10.1021/am4023169. IF: 5.008

  • Epitaxial growth of an antireflective, conductive, graded index ITO nanowire layer

    O'Dwyer, C.; Sotomayor Torres, C. Frontiers of Physics; 0 0 2013. 10.3389/fphy.2013.00018. IF: 0.000

  • Fabrication of highly ordered sub-20 nm silicon nanopillars by block copolymer lithography combined with resist design

    Salaun, M.; Zelsmann, M.; Archambault, S.; Borah, D.; Kehagias, N.; Simao, C.; Lorret, O.; Shaw, M.T.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M.; Morris, M.A. Journal of Materials Chemistry C; 1 (22): 3544 - 3550. 2013. 10.1039/c3tc30300d. IF: 6.108

  • Lasing in nanoimprinted two-dimensional photonic crystal band-edge lasers

    Reboud, V.; Romero-Vivas, J.; Lovera, P.; Kehagias, N.; Kehoe, T.; Redmond, G.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M. Applied Physics Letters; 2013. 10.1063/1.4790646. IF: 3.794

  • Lifetimes of confined acoustic phonons in ultrathin silicon membranes

    Cuffe, J.; Ristow, O.; Chávez, E.; Shchepetov, A.; Chapuis, P.-O.; Alzina, F.; Hettich, M.; Prunnila, M.; Ahopelto, J.; Dekorsy, T.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M. Physical Review Letters; 110 (9) 2013. 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.095503. IF: 7.943

  • MBE Growth and Structural and Electrochemical Characterization of Tin Oxide and Indium Tin Oxide Nanoparticles Grown on Silicon for Li-ion Battery Anodes

    Osiak, M.; Armstrong, E.; Kennedy, T.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.; Ryan, K.; O'Dwyer, C. ECS Transactions; 53 (10): 1 - 10. 2013. 10.1149/05310.0001ecst. IF: 0.000

  • Nanoscale imaging of InN segregation and polymorphism in single vertically aligned InGaN/GaN multi quantum well nanorods by tip-enhanced Raman scattering

    Poliani, E.; Wagner, M.R.; Reparaz, J.S.; Mandl, M.; Strassburg, M.; Kong, X.; Trampert, A.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M.; Hoffmann, A.; Maultzsch, J. Nano Letters; 13 (7): 3205 - 3212-3212. 2013. 10.1021/nl401277y. IF: 13.025

  • Non Local Corrections to the Electronic Structure of Non Ideal Electron Gases: The Case of Graphene and Tyrosine

    García, Y.; Cuffe, J.; Alzina, F.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M. Journal of Modern Physics; 4 (4): 522 - 527. 2013. 10.4236/jmp.2013.44074. IF: 0.000

  • Rechargeable Li-Ion Battery Anode of Indium Oxide with Visible to Infra-Red Transparency

    Osiak, M.; Khunsin, W.; Armstrong, E.; Kennedy, T.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M.; Ryan, K.M.; O¿Dwyer, C. ECS Transactions; 53 (6): 53 - 61. 2013. 10.1149/05306.0053ecst. IF: 0.000

  • Soft-graphoepitaxy using nanoimprinted polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane substrates for the directed self-Assembly of PS-b-PDMS

    Borah, D.; Simao, C.D.; Senthamaraikannan, R.; Rasappa, S.; Francone, A.; Lorret, O.; Salaun, M.; Kosmala, B.; Kehagias, N.; Zelsmann, M.; Sotomayor-Torres, C.M.; Morris, M.A. European Polymer Journal; 49 (11): 3512 - 3521-3521. 2013. 10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2013.08.011. IF: 2.562

  • Spatial mapping of exciton lifetimes in single ZnO nanowires

    Reparaz, J. S.; Callsen, G. ; Wagner, M. R.; Güell, F. ; Morante, J. R.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M. ; Hoffmann, A. Applied Physics Letters; 1: 12103. 2013. 10.1063/1.4808441. IF: 3.794

  • Ultra-thin free-standing single crystalline silicon membranes with strain control

    Shchepetov, A.; Prunnila, M.; Alzina, F.; Schneider, L.; Cuffe, J.; Jiang, H.; Kauppinen, E.I.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M.; Ahopelto, J. Applied Physics Letters; 2013. 10.1063/1.4807130. IF: 3.794


  • Calculation of the specific heat in ultra-thin free-standing silicon membranes

    Chávez, E. ; Cuffe, J.; Alzina, F. ; Sotomayor Torres, C. M. Journal of Physics: Conference Series; 395: 12105. 2012. .

  • Enhanced light extraction in ITO-free OLEDs using double-sided printed electrodes

    Reboud, V.; Khokhar, A.Z.; Sepúlveda, B.; Dudek, D.; Kehoe, T.; Cuffe, J.; Kehagias, N.; Lira-Cantu, M.; Gadegaard, N.; Grasso, V.; Lambertini, V.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M. Nanoscale; 4 (11): 3495 - 3500. 2012. .

  • Enhancement of extraction efficiency in nanoimprinted optical device structures

    Reboud, V. ; Sotomayor Torres, C. M. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering; 84280B: 1. 2012. 10.1117/12.925189 .

  • Noise-Assisted Crystallization of Opal Films

    Khunsin, W. ; Amann, A. ; Kocher-Oberlehner, G. ; Romanov, S. G.; Pullteap, S. ; Cheng Seat, H. ; O'Reilly, E. P.; Zentel, R.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M. Advanced Functional Materials; 22: 1812 - 1821. 2012. DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102605.

  • Phonons in Slow Motion: Dispersion Relations in Ultra-Thin Si Membranes

    Cuffe, J. ; Chavez, E.; Shchepetov, A. ; Chapuis, P.O.; El Boudouti, E. H.; Alsina, F.; Dudek, D. ; Gomis-Bresco, J. ; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Prunnila, M.; Ahopelto, J.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M. Nano Letters; 12: 3569 - 3573. 2012. DOI: 10.1021/nl301204u.

  • Polymer photonic band-gaps fabricated by nanoimprint lithography.

    Reboud, V. ; Kehoe, T.; Romero Vivas, J.; Kehagias, N.; Zelsmannd, M.; Alsina, F.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M. Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications; 10: 632 - 635. 2012. .

  • Soft graphoepitaxy of hexagonal PS-b-PDMS on nanopatterned POSS surfaces fabricated by nanoimprint lithography

    Simao, C.; Francone, A.; Borah, D.; Lorret, O.; Salaun, M.; Kosmala, B. ; Shaw, M.T.; Dittert, B.; Kehagias, N.; Zelsmann, M.; Morris, M.A.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M. Journal of Photopolymer Science and Technology; 25(2): 239 - 244. 2012. .

  • Zinc oxide nanostructures by solvothermal synthesis

    Segovia, M.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M.; González, G.; Benavente, E. Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals; 555: 40 - 50. 2012. 10.1080/15421406.2012.634363.


  • Direct top-down ordering of diblock copolymers through nanoimprint lithography

    Salaün, M.; Kehagias, N.; Salhi, B.; Baron, T.; Boussey, J.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M.; Zelsmann, M. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures; 29 2011. 10.1116/1.3662399.

  • Fine control of critical dimension for the fabrication of large bandgap high frequency photonic and phononic crystals

    Cuffe, J. ; Dudek, D.; Kehagias, N.; Chapuis, P.O.; Reboud, V.; Alsina, F. ; McInerney, J.G.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M. Microelectronic Engineering; 2011. .

  • Low temperature direct imprint of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) resist

    Kehagias, N.; Zelsmann, M.; Chouiki, M.; Francone, A.; Reboud, V.; Schoeftner, R.; Sotomayor Torres, C. Microelectronic Engineering; 2011. .

  • Semiconducting properties of layered cadmium sulphide-based hybrid nanocomposites

    López-Cabaña, Z.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M.; González, G. Nanoscale Research Letters; 2011. .

  • Surface-Directed Dewetting of a Block Copolymer for Fabricating Highly Uniform Nanostructured Microdroplets and Concentric Nanorings

    Farrell, R.A.; Kehagias, N.; Shaw, M.T.; Reboud, V.; Zelsmann, M.; Holmes, J.D.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M.; Morris, M.A. ACS Nano; 2011. .

  • The morphology of graphene sheets treated in an ozone generator

    Tao, H.; Moser, J.; Alzina, F.; Wang, Q.; Sotomayor-Torres, C.M. Journal of Physical Chemistry C; 115: 18257 - 18260. 2011. 10.1021/jp2050756.

  • Zinc oxide/carboxylic acid lamellar structures

    Segovia, M.; Lemus, K.; Moreno, M.; Ana, M.A.S.; González, G.; Ballesteros, B.; Sotomayor, C.; Benavente, E. Materials Research Bulletin; 46: 2191 - 2195. 2011. 10.1016/j.materresbull.2011.06.040.


  • Damaging graphene with ozone treatment: A chemically tunable metal - Insulator transition

    Leconte N., Moser J., Ordejón P., Tao H., Lherbier A., Bachtold A., Alsina F., Sotomayor Torres C.M., Charlier J.-C., Roche S. ACS Nano; 4 (7): 4033 - 4038. 2010. 10.1021/nn100537z.

    We present a multiscale ab initio study of electronic and transport properties of two-dimensional graphene after epoxide functionalization via ozone treatment. The orbital rehybridization induced by the epoxide groups triggers a strong intervalley scattering and changes dramatically the conduction properties of graphene. By varying the coverage density of epoxide defects from 0.1 to 4%, charge conduction can be tuned from a diffusive to a strongly localized regime, with localization lengths down to a few nanometers long. Experimental results supporting the interpretation as a metal - insulator transition are also provided. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  • Magnetotransport in disordered graphene exposed to ozone: From weak to strong localization

    Moser, J.; Tao, H.; Roche, S.; Alzina, F.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M.; Bachtold, A. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; 81 2010. 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.205445.

  • Tuning the Intensity of Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence by Engineering Silver Nanoparticle Arrays

    Yang, B.; Lu, N.; Qi, D.; Ma, R.; Wu, A.; Hao, J.; Liu, X.; Mu, Y.; Reboud, V.; Kehagias, N.;Sotomayor Torres, C.M.; Yin Chiang Boey, F.; Chen, X.; Chi, L. Small; 2010. .


  • Bottom-up growth of fully transparent low refractive index top-contact layers of indium tin oxide nanowires for LEDs

    C. O'Dwyer; M. Szachowic; G. Visimberga; V. Lavayen; S.B. Newcomb; C.M. Sotomayor Nature Nanotechnology; 4: 239 - 244. 2009. .

  • Inline metrology configuration for sub-wavelength diffraction using microscope optics

    T. Kehoe; V. Reboud; N.Kehagias; C.M. Sotomayor Microelectronic Engineering; 86 (04-juny): 1036 - 1039. 2009. .

  • Lanthanides-clay nanocomposites: synthesis, characterization and optical properties

    C. Seledon; C. Quiroz; G. González; C.M. Sotomayor; E. Benavente Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings; 44 (5): 1191 - 1194. 2009. 10.1016/j.materresbull.2008.09.043.

  • Nanoimprinted plasmonic crystals for light extraction applications

    V. Reboud; N. Kehagias; T. Kehoe; G. Leveque; C. Mavidis; M. Kafesaki.; C.M. Sotomayor Microelectronic Engineering; 87: 1367 - 1369. 2009. 10.1016/j.mee.2009.12.030.

  • Physical properties of thin nanoimprint polymer films measured by photo-acoustic metrology

    T. Kehoe; J. Bryner; V. Reboud; J. Vollmann; C. M. Sotomayor Torres Proceeding of the 10th IEEE International Conference on Solid Dielectrics; SPIE 7271: 72711V. 2009. 10.1117/12.814162.

  • Reduced surfactant uptake in three dimensional assemblies of Vox nanotubes improves reversible Li+Intercalation and charge capacity

    C. O'Dwyer; V. Lavayen; D.A. Tanner; S.B. Newcomb; E. Benavente; G. González; C.M. Sotomayor Advanced Functional Materials; 19: 1736 - 1745. 2009. .

  • Resonance amplification and saturation of defect emission in ZnO inverted opal

    W. Khunsin; M. Scharrer; L. Aagesen; S.G. Romanov; R.P.H. Chang; C.M. Sotomayor Optics Letters; 34: 1519 - 1521. 2009. .

  • Site-selective self-assembly of colloidal photonic crystals

    S. Arpiainen; F. Jonsson; J.R. Dekker; G. Kocher; W. Khunsin; C. M. Sotomayor; J. Ahopelto Advanced Functional Materials; 19: 1247 - 1253. 2009. 10.1002/adfm.200801612.

  • Stamp replication for thermal and UV nanoimprint lithography using a UV sensitive silsesquioxane resist

    N. Kehagias; V. Reboud; Girolamo; M. Chouiki; M. Zelsmann; J. Boussey; C.M. Sotomayor Microelectronic Engineering; 86: 1036 - 1039. 2009. 10.1016/j.mee.2009.01.052.

  • Tuning the intensity of metal enhanced fluorescence by engineering silver nanoparticle arrays

    B. Yang; N. Lu; D. Qi; Q. Wu; J. Hao; R. Ma; X. Liu; Y. Mu; V. Reboud; N. Kehagias; C. M. Sotomayor; F.Y. Chiang; X. Chen and L. Chi Small; 6 (9): 1038 - 1043. 2009. 10.1002/smll.200902350.


  • An investigation into the growth conditions and defect states of laminar ZnO nanostructures

    J S Bendall; G Visimberga; M Szachowicz; N O V Plank; S Romanov; C M Sotomayor-Torres; M E Welland Journal of Materials Chemistry; 18: 5259 - 5266. 2008. 10.1039/B812867G .

  • Bleaching-induced evolution of emission directionality of dye-loaded opals

    W. Khunsin; S. G. Romanov; M. Bardosova; D. Whitehead; M. Pemble; C. M. Sotomayor Torres Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics; 10 (11): 115201. 2008. 10.1088/1464-4258/10/11/115201.

  • Chemosorption-related shift of photonic band gap in photoconductive inverted ZnO opal

    W. Khunsin; S.G. Romanov; M.Scharer; L.Aagesen; R.P.H. Chang; C.M. Sotomayor Torres Optics Letters; 33 (5): 461 - 465. 2008. 10.1364/OL.33.000461.

  • Electron beam induced electronic transport in alkyl amine-intercalated VOx nanotubes

    C. O¿Dwyer; V. Lavayen; C. Clavijo-Cedeño; C. M. Sotomayor Torres Physica Status Solidi (B): Basic Research; 245: 2102. 2008. 10.1002/pssb.200879566.

  • Fabrication of defect-free nanoimprinted photonic crystal for laser applications

    V Reboud; N Kehagias; M Striccoli; T Placido; A Panniello; M L Curri; M Zelsmann; F Reuther; G Gruetzner; C M Sotomayor Torres Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1: Regular Papers & Short Notes; 47: 5139 - 5141. 2008. 10.1143/JJAP.47.5139.

  • Inelastic Light scattering by longitudinal acoustic phonons in thin silicon layers: from membranes to silicon-on-insulator structures,

    J Groenen; F Poinsotte; A Zwick; C M Sotomayor Torres; M Prunnila; J Ahopelto Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; 77: 45420. 2008. 10.1103/PhysRevB.77.045420.

  • Light Emitting Diodes with Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    A. Rogach; N. Gaponik; J M Lupton; C. Bertoni; D. E. Gallardo; S. Dunn; N. Li Pira; M. Paderi; P. M. Repetto; S. G. Romanov; C. O¿Dwyer; C. M. Sotomayor Torres; A. Eychmüller Angewandte Chemie - International Edition; 47: 6538 - 6548. 2008. 10.1002/anie.200705109.

  • Low-dimensional hinged barcode metal oxide and free-standing ordered organic nanostructures from turbostratic vanadium oxide

    C. O'Dwyer; V. Lavayen; D. Fuenzalida; H. Lozano; E. Benavente; M. A. Santa Ana; G. González; C. M. Sotomayor Torres Small; 4: 990 - 1000. 2008. 10.1002/smll.200701014.

  • Modification of emission of CdTe nanocrystals by the local field of Langmuir-Blodgett colloidal photonic crystals

    S.G. Romanov; M. Bardosova; D. Whitehead; M. Pemble; C.M. Sotomayor Torres; N. Gaponik; A. Eychmüller Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics; 104: 103118. 2008. 10.1063/1.2981087.

  • Modification of spontaneous emission of (CdSe)ZnS nanocrystals embedded in nanoimprinted photonic crystals

    V. Reboud; N. Kehagias; M. Zelsmann; M. Striccoli; M. Tamborra; M. L. Curri; A. Agostiano; M. Fink; F. Reuther; G. Gruetzner; C. M. Sotomayor Torres Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology; 8: 535 - 539. 2008. 10.1166/jnn.2008.A143.

  • Nanoimprint lithography and surface modification as prospective technologies for heterogeneous integration

    N Kehagias; W Hu; N Lu; L Chi; H Fuchs; A Genua; J A Alduncin; J A Pomposo; D Mecerreyes; C M Sotomayor Torres Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics; 5: 3671 - 3575. 2008. 10.1002/pssc.200780226 .

  • Optical transmission of triple-film hetero-opals

    W. Khunsin; S. G. Romanov; C. M. Sotomayor Torres; J. Ye and R. Zentel Journal of Applied Physics; 92: 13527. 2008. 10.1063/1.2951958.

  • Quantitative Analysis of Lattice orderingin thin-film opal-based photonic crystals

    W. Khunsin; G. Kocher; S. G. Romanov; C. M. Sotomayor Torres Advanced Functional Materials; 18: 2471 - 2479. 2008. 0.1002/adfm.200701431.

  • Residual layer thickness in nanoimprint: experiments and coarse-grain simulation

    N Kehagias; V Reboud; C M Sotomayor Torres; V Sorotin; A Svintsov; S Zaitsev Microelectronic Engineering; 85: 846 - 849. 2008. 10.1016/j.mee.2007.12.041.

  • Rotational symmetry of transmission patterns and ordering of opal photonic crystals

    W. Khunsin; S. G. Romanov; C. M. Sotomayor Torres; J. Nonlinear Optical Journal of Nonlinear Optical Physics and Materials; 17: 97 - 104. 2008. 10.1142/S0218863508004020 .

  • Understanding of transmission in the range of high-order photonic bands in thin opal film: Towards the mystery of high-order photonic bands in thin film opal crystals

    S.G. Romanov; M. Bardosova; I. M. Povey; M. E. Pemble; C.M. Sotomayor Torres Applied Physics Letters; 92: 19106. 2008. 10.1063/1.2920443.


  • Anisotropic vanadium oxide nanostructured host matrices for lithium ion intercalation

    C. O¿Dwyer; V. Lavayen; M. A. Santa Ana; E. Benavente; G. Gonzalez; C. M. Sotomayor Torres Research Letters in Physical Chemistry; 2007: 32528. 2007. 10.1155/2007/32528.

  • Benchmarking of 50¿nm features in thermal nanoimprint

    C. Gourgon; N. Chaix; H. Schift; M. Tormen; S. Landis; C. M. Sotomayor Torres; A. Kristensen; R. H. Pedersen; M. B. Christiansen; I. Fernandez-Cuesta; D. Mendels; L. Montelius; T. Haatainen Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures; 2007. .

  • Effect of template defects in radiative energy relaxation of CdTe nanocrystals in nanotubes of chrysotile asbestos

    M Bardosova; SG Romanov; CM Sotomayor Torres; N. Gaponik; A. Eychmueller; YA Kumzerov; J Bendell Microporous and Mesoporous Materials; 107: 212 - 218. 2007. 10.1016/j.micromeso.2007.05.035.

  • Embedded nano channels fabricated by non-selective reverse contact UV nanoimprint lithography technique

    N. Kehagias; G. Chansin; V. Reboud; M. Zelsmann; C. Schuster; M. Kubenz; F. Reuther; G. Gruetzner; C. M. Sotomayor Torres Microelectronic Engineering; 10: 1016. 2007. .

  • Emission pattern of planar CdTe nanocrystal light source coated by two dimensional Langmuir-Blodgett photonic crystal

    S.G Romanov; M Bardosova; M Pemble; CM Sotomayor Torres; N Gaponik; A Ecychmuller Materials Science and Engineering; C27: 968 - 971. 2007. .

  • Erasing diffraction orders ¿ opal versus Langmuir-Blodgett colloidal crystals

    S.G. Romanov; M. Bardosova; M. Pemble; C.M. Sotomayor Torres Applied Physics Letters; 2007. 10.1063/1.2714198.

  • Functional patterns obtained by nanoimprinting lithography and subsequent growth of polymer brushes

    A Genua; J. A. Alduncín; J. A. Pomposo; N Kehagias; V. Reboud; C. M. Sotomayor Torres; D. Mecerreyes Nanotechnology; 2007. 10.1088/0957-4484/18/21/215301.

  • Inorganic Fullerenes: From Lamellar precursors to functionalized nanotubes

    Vladimir Lavayen; Eglantina Benavente; Clivia M. Sotomayor Torres; G. Gonzáles Solid State Phenomena; 2007. 10.4028/

  • Integration of SOI-Based 2D- and Si-Based 3D Photonic Crystals

    G Kocher; W. Khunsin; J Romero Vivas; K. Vynck; S. Arpiainen; S.G Romanov; B Lange; M Mulot; F Jonsson; T Charvolin; E Hajdi; D Cassagne; R Zentel; J. Ahopelto; C.M Sotomayor Torres ECS Transactions; 2007. .

  • Lanthanides¿clay nanocomposites: Synthesis, characterization and optical properties

    E Benevente; Y Echeverria; V Lavayan; CM Sotomayor Torres; G Gonzalez Materials Research Bulletin; 2007. .

  • Light emission from three-dimensional ensembles of CdTe nanocrystal wires templated in nanotubes of chrysotile asbestos

    M. Bardosova; S.G Romanov; C.M Sotomayor Torres; N. Gaponik; A. Eychmueller; Y.A Kumzerov Physica E: Low-Dimensional Systems and Nanostructures; 37: 218 - 221. 2007. 10.1016/j.physe.2006.10.020.

  • Multicolor Emission on Prepatterned Substrates Using a Single Dye Species

    W. Hu; N. Lu; H. Zhang; Y. Wang; N. Kehagias; V. Reboud; C. M. Sotomayor Torres; J. Hao; W. Li; H. Fuchs; L. Chi Advanced Materials; 19: 2119 - 2123. 2007. 10.1002/adma.200602491.

  • Nanoimprinted photonic crystals for the modification of the CdSe(ZnS) nanocrystals light emission

    M Bardosova; SG Romanov; CM Sotomayor Torres; N. Gaponik; A. Eychmueller; YA Kumzerov; J Bendell Microelectronic Engineering; 2007. .

  • Photoluminescence enhancement in metallic nanocomposite printable polymer

    V. Reboud; N. Kehagias; M. Striccoli; T. Placido; A. Panniello; M. L. Curri; M. Zelsmann; F. Reuther; G. Gruetzner; C. M. Sotomayor Torres Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures; 2007. .

  • Photoluminescence enhancement in nanoimprinted photonic crystals and coupled surface plasmons

    V. Reboud; N. Kehagias; M. Zelsmann; C. Schuster; M. Fink; F. Reuther; G. Gruetzner; C. M. Sotomayor Torres Optics Express; 2007. .

  • Reverse-contact UV nanoimprint lithography for multilayered structure fabrication

    N Kehagias; V Reboud; G Chansin; M Zelsmann; C Jeppesen; C Schuster; M Kubenz; F Reuther; G Gruetzner; C M Sotomayor Torres Nanotechnology; 2007. .

  • Six-Fold Rotationally Symmetric Vanadium Oxide Nanostructures by a Morphotropic Phase Transition

    C. O'Dwyer; V. Lavayen; D. Fuenzalida; S. B. Newcomb; M. A. Santa Ana; E. Benavente; G. Gonzalez; C. M. Sotomayor Torres Physica Status Solidi (B): Basic Research; 11: 4157 - 4160. 2007. .

  • Spontaneous emission control of colloidal nanocrystals using nanoimprinted photonic crystals,

    V. Reboud; N. Kehagias; M. Zelsmann; M. Striccoli; M. Tamborra; M. L. Curri; A. Agostiano; M. Fink; F. Reuther; G. Gruetzner; C. M. Sotomayor Torres Applied Physics Letters; 90: 11114. 2007. .

  • Spontaneous emission of nanocrystals in nanoimprinted photonic structures

    V. Reboud; N. Kehagias; M. Zelsmann; M. Striccoli; M. Tamborra; M. L. Curri; A. Agostiano; M. Fink; F. Reuther; G. Gruetzner; C. M. Sotomayor Torres Microelectronic Engineering; 10: 1016. 2007. .

  • Stochastic Resonances in photonic crystal growth

    A Amann; W Khunsin; G Kocher; C M Sotomayor Torres; E P O¿Reilly Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering; 6603: 660321. 2007. doi:10.1117/12.724561.

  • Surfactant-Mediated Variation of Band-Edge Emission in CdS Nanocomposites

    C. O'Dwyer; V. Lavayen; N. Mirabal; M. A. Santa Ana; E. Benavente; S. Ormazabal; G. Gonzalez; Z. Lopez; O. Schops; C. M. Sotomayor Torres; U. Woggon Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications; 5: 45 - 52. 2007. .

  • The formation of Nanotubes and Nanocoils of Molybdenum Disulphide

    V Lavayen; N Mirabel; C. O Dywer; E. Benavente; CM Sotomayor Torres; G. Gonzalez Applied Surface Science; 253(12): 5185 - 5189. 2007. .

  • Towards Si-based photonic circuits: integrating photonic crystals in Silicon-on-Insulator platforms

    G. Kocher; W. Khunsin; S. Arpiainen; J. Romero-Vivas; S. G. Romanov; J. Ye; B. Lange; F. Jonsson; R. Zentel; J. Ahopelto; C. M. Sotomayor Torres Solid-State Electronics; 51: 333 - 336. 2007. .

  • Towards thiol functionalization of vanadium pentoxide nanotubes using gold nanoparticles

    V. Lavayen; C. O'Dwyer; G. Gonzalez; G. Cardenas; C. M. Sotomayor Torres Materials Research Bulletin; 42: 674 - 685. 2007. .

  • Two-dimensional polymer photonic crystal band-edge lasers fabricated by nanoimprint lithography

    V. Reboud; P. Lovera; N. Kehagias; M. Zelsmann; C. Schuster; F. Reuther; G. Gruetzner; G. Redmond; C. M. Sotomayor Torres Applied Physics Letters; 91: 15110. 2007. .

  • Vanadate Conformation Variations in Novel Vanadium Pentoxide Nanostructures

    C. O'Dwyer; V. Lavayen; M. A. Santa Ana; E. Benavente; G. Gonzalez; C. M. Sotomayor Torres Journal of the Electrochemical Society; 154: K29 - K35. 2007. .