Staff directory Jeremy David

Jeremy David

Postdoctoral Researcher
Advanced Electron Nanoscopy



  • Degradation and regeneration mechanisms of NiO protective layers deposited by ALD on photoanodes

    Ros C., Andreu T., David J., Arbiol J., Morante J.R. Journal of Materials Chemistry A; 7 (38): 21892 - 21902. 2019. 10.1039/c9ta08638b.

    The use of high pH electrolytes requires protective layers to avoid corrosion in photoanodes based on semiconductors like silicon. NiO is one of the materials that comply with the requirements for transparency, conductivity, chemical stability and catalysis on the surface in contact with the electrolyte. Here, NiO layers have been deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at low temperatures, and their stability is analyzed over 1000 hours. Due to the layer structure characteristics, the best overall performance was achieved at 100 °C deposition temperature. By electrochemical measurements progressive time dependent degradation under anodic working conditions is observed, attributed to the formation of higher nickel oxidation states at the electrode/electrolyte interface as a main degradation mechanism, resulting in an OER overpotential increase. Another minor degradation mechanism affects the optical surface quality and gives rise to a loss of photon absorption efficiency on the scale of hundreds of hours. A regeneration process based on in situ periodic cyclic voltammetry, bringing the electrodes to cathodic conditions every 3, 12 or 48 hours, has been shown to partially reverse the main degradation mechanism achieving 85% stability over 1000 hours in a study with over 10 mA cm-2 photocurrent densities. © 2019 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Insight into the Degradation Mechanisms of Atomic Layer Deposited TiO2 as Photoanode Protective Layer

    Ros C., Carretero N.M., David J., Arbiol J., Andreu T., Morante J.R. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces; 11 (33): 29725 - 29735. 2019. 10.1021/acsami.9b05724. IF: 8.456

    Around 100 nm thick TiO2 layers deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) have been investigated as anticorrosion protective films for silicon-based photoanodes decorated with 5 nm NiFe catalyst in highly alkaline electrolyte. Completely amorphous layers presented high resistivity; meanwhile, the ones synthesized at 300 °C, having a fully anatase crystalline TiO2 structure, introduced insignificant resistance, showing direct correlation between crystallization degree and electrical conductivity. The conductivity through crystalline TiO2 layers has been found not to be homogeneous, presenting preferential conduction paths attributed to grain boundaries and defects within the crystalline structure. A correlation between the conductivity atomic force microscopy measurements and grain interstitials can be seen, supported by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy cross-sectional images presenting defective regions in crystalline TiO2 grains. It was found that the conduction mechanism goes through the injection of electrons coming from water oxidation from the electrocatalyst into the TiO2 conduction band. Then, electrons are transported to the Si/SiOx/TiO2 interface where electrons recombine with holes given by the p+n-Si junction. No evidences of intra-band-gap states in TiO2 responsible of conductivity have been detected. Stability measurements of fully crystalline samples over 480 h in anodic polarization show a continuous current decay. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy allows to identify that the main cause of deactivation is associated with the loss of TiO2 electrical conductivity, corresponding to a self-passivation mechanism. This is proposed to reflect the effect of OH- ions diffusing in the TiO2 structure in anodic conditions by the electric field. This fact proves that a modification takes place in the defective zone of the layer, blocking the ability to transfer electrical charge through the layer. According to this mechanism, a regeneration of the degradation process is demonstrated possible based on ultraviolet illumination, which contributes to change the occupancy of TiO2 electronic states and to recover the defective zone's conductivity. These findings confirm the connection between the structural properties of the ALD-deposited polycrystalline layer and the degradation mechanisms and thus highlight main concerns toward fabricating long-lasting metal-oxide protective layers for frontal illuminated photoelectrodes. Copyright © 2019 American Chemical Society.


  • Ab Initio Structure Determination of Cu2- xTe Plasmonic Nanocrystals by Precession-Assisted Electron Diffraction Tomography and HAADF-STEM Imaging

    Mugnaioli E., Gemmi M., Tu R., David J., Bertoni G., Gaspari R., De Trizio L., Manna L. Inorganic Chemistry; 57 (16): 10241 - 10248. 2018. 10.1021/acs.inorgchem.8b01445. IF: 4.700

    We investigated pseudo-cubic Cu2-xTe nanosheets using electron diffraction tomography and high-resolution HAADF-STEM imaging. The structure of this metastable nanomaterial, which has a strong localized surface plasmon resonance in the near-infrared region, was determined ab initio by 3D electron diffraction data recorded in low-dose nanobeam precession mode, using a new generation background-free single-electron detector. The presence of two different, crystallographically defined modulations creates a 3D connected vacancy channel system, which may account for the strong plasmonic response of this material. Moreover, a pervasive rotational twinning is observed for nanosheets as thin as 40 nm, resulting in a tetragonal pseudo-symmetry. Copyright © 2018 American Chemical Society.

  • Colloidal Ni2-: XCoxP nanocrystals for the hydrogen evolution reaction

    Liu J., Wang Z., David J., Llorca J., Li J., Yu X., Shavel A., Arbiol J., Meyns M., Cabot A. Journal of Materials Chemistry A; 6 (24): 11453 - 11462. 2018. 10.1039/c8ta03485k. IF: 9.931

    A cost-effective and scalable approach was developed to produce monodisperse Ni2-xCoxP nanocrystals (NCs) with composition tuned over the entire range (0 ≤ x ≤ 2). Ni2-xCoxP NCs were synthesized using low-cost, stable and low-toxicity triphenyl phosphite (TPP) as a phosphorus source, metal chlorides as metal precursors and hexadecylamine (HDA) as a ligand. The synthesis involved the nucleation of amorphous Ni-P and its posterior crystallization and simultaneous incorporation of Co. The composition, size and morphology of the Ni2-xCoxP NCs could be controlled simply by varying the ratio of Ni and Co precursors and the amounts of TPP and HDA. Ternary Ni2-xCoxP-based electrocatalysts exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) compared to binary phosphides. In particular, NiCoP electrocatalysts displayed the lowest overpotential of 97 mV at J = 10 mA cm-2 and an excellent long-term stability. DFT calculations of the Gibbs free energy for hydrogen adsorption at the surface of Ni2-xCoxP NCs showed NiCoP to have the most appropriate composition to optimize this parameter within the whole Ni2-xCoxP series. However, the hydrogen adsorption energy was demonstrated not to be the only parameter controlling the HER activity in Ni2-xCoxP. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2018.

  • High Thermoelectric Performance in Crystallographically Textured n-Type Bi2Te3- xSex Produced from Asymmetric Colloidal Nanocrystals

    Liu Y., Zhang Y., Lim K.H., Ibáñez M., Ortega S., Li M., David J., Martí-Sánchez S., Ng K.M., Arbiol J., Kovalenko M.V., Cadavid D., Cabot A. ACS Nano; 12 (7): 7174 - 7184. 2018. 10.1021/acsnano.8b03099. IF: 13.709

    In the present work, we demonstrate crystallographically textured n-type Bi2Te3-xSex nanomaterials with exceptional thermoelectric figures of merit produced by consolidating disk-shaped Bi2Te3-xSex colloidal nanocrystals (NCs). Crystallographic texture was achieved by hot pressing the asymmetric NCs in the presence of an excess of tellurium. During the hot press, tellurium acted both as lubricant to facilitate the rotation of NCs lying close to normal to the pressure axis and as solvent to dissolve the NCs approximately aligned with the pressing direction, which afterward recrystallize with a preferential orientation. NC-based Bi2Te3-xSex nanomaterials showed very high electrical conductivities associated with large charge carrier concentrations, n. We hypothesize that such large n resulted from the presence of an excess of tellurium during processing, which introduced a high density of donor TeBi antisites. Additionally, the presence in between grains of traces of elemental Te, a narrow band gap semiconductor with a work function well below Bi2Te3-xSex, might further contribute to increase n through spillover of electrons, while at the same time blocking phonon propagation and hole transport through the nanomaterial. NC-based Bi2Te3-xSex nanomaterials were characterized by very low thermal conductivities in the pressing direction, which resulted in ZT values up to 1.31 at 438 K in this direction. This corresponds to a ca. 40% ZT enhancement from commercial ingots. Additionally, high ZT values were extended over wider temperature ranges due to reduced bipolar contribution to the Seebeck coefficient and the thermal conductivity. Average ZT values up to 1.15 over a wide temperature range, 320 to 500 K, were measured, which corresponds to a ca. 50% increase over commercial materials in the same temperature range. Contrary to most previous works, highest ZT values were obtained in the pressing direction, corresponding to the c crystallographic axis, due to the predominance of the thermal conductivity reduction over the electrical conductivity difference when comparing the two crystal directions. © 2018 American Chemical Society.