Staff directory Enric Canadell Casanova

Enric Canadell Casanova

Visiting Senior Researcher
Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB)
Theory and Simulation



  • Competition between Ta-Ta and Te-Te bonding leading to the commensurate charge density wave in TaTe4

    Guster B., Pruneda M., Ordejón P., Canadell E. Physical Review B; 105 (6, 064107) 2022. 10.1103/PhysRevB.105.064107. IF: 4.036

    The origin of the charge density wave in TaTe4 is discussed on the basis of a first-principles density functional theory analysis of the Fermi surface, electron-hole response function, phonon band structure of the average structure, and structural optimization of the modulated phase. Analysis of the band structure and Fermi surface of the average structure clearly proves that despite the presence of TaTe4 chains in the crystal structure, TaTe4 is in fact a 3D material as far as the electronic structure near the Fermi level is concerned. A Fermi surface nesting mechanism is dismissed as the origin of the 2a×2a×3c structural modulation. The optimized 2a×2a×3c structure, which is found to be the more stable modulation in agreement with the experimental observations, can be obtained directly from a soft-phonon mode computed for the undistorted structure. Our results suggest that the driving force for the distortion is the maximization of Ta-Ta metal-metal bonding subject to inducing the minimum bonding decrease in the Te sublattice. © 2022 American Physical Society.


  • Basic aspects of the charge density wave instability of transition metal trichalcogenides NbSe3and monoclinic-TaS3

    Guster B., Pruneda M., Ordejón P., Canadell E., Pouget J.-P. Journal of Physics Condensed Matter; 33 (48, 485401) 2021. 10.1088/1361-648X/ac238a. IF: 2.333

    NbSe3 and monoclinic-TaS3 (m-TaS3) are quasi-1D metals containing three different types of chains and undergoing two different charge density wave Peierls transitions at TP1 and TP2 associated with type III and type I chains, respectively. The nature of these transitions is discussed on the basis of first-principles DFT calculation of their Fermi surface (FS) and electron-hole response function. Because of the stronger inter-chain interactions, the FS and electron-hole response function are considerably more complex for NbSe3 than m-TaS3; however a common scenario can be put forward to rationalize the results. The intra-chain inter-band nesting processes dominate the strongest response for both type I and type III chains of the two compounds. Two well-defined maxima of the electron-hole response for NbSe3 are found with the (0a∗, 0c∗) and (1/2a∗, 1/2c∗) transverse components at TP1 and TP2, respectively, whereas the second maximum is not observed for m-TaS3 at TP2. Analysis of the different inter-chain coupling mechanisms leads to the conclusion that FS nesting effects are only relevant to set the transverse a∗ components in NbSe3. The strongest inter-chain Coulomb coupling mechanism must be taken into account for the transverse coupling along c∗ in NbSe3 and along both a∗ and c∗ for m-TaS3. Phonon spectrum calculations reveal the formation of a giant 2kF Kohn anomaly for m-TaS3. All these results support a weak coupling scenario for the Peierls transition of transition metal trichalcogenides. © 2021 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • Conducting chiral nickel(ii) bis(dithiolene) complexes: Structural and electron transport modulation with the charge and the number of stereogenic centres

    Abhervé A., Mroweh N., Cauchy T., Pop F., Cui H., Kato R., Vanthuyne N., Alemany P., Canadell E., Avarvari N. Journal of Materials Chemistry C; 9 (12): 4119 - 4140. 2021. 10.1039/d1tc00439e. IF: 7.393

    Nickel(ii) bis(dithiolene) complexes can provide crystalline conducting materials either in their monoanionic or neutral forms. Here we show that the use of chiral dithiolene ligands with one or two stereogenic centres, together with variation of the counter-ion in the anionic complexes, represents a powerful strategy to modulate the conducting properties of such molecular materials. The chiral ligands 5-methyl-5,6-dihydro-1,4-dithiin-2,3-dithiolate (me-dddt) and 5,6-dimethyl-5,6-dihydro-1,4-dithiin-2,3-dithiolate (dm-dddt) have been generated from the thione precursors 1 and 2 which have been structurally and chiroptically characterized. Anionic Ni(ii) complexes of these two ligands with tetrabutyl-ammonium (TBA) and tetramethyl-ammonium (TMA) have been prepared and structurally characterized, suggesting that it is the nature of the counter-ion which mostly influences the solid state organization of the complexes. Both TBA and TMA radical anion salts are Mott insulators with antiferromagnetic ground state, as suggested by spin polarized DFT band structure calculations. However, the TMA salts are one order of magnitude more conducting than the TBA counterparts. The neutral materials [Ni(me-dddt)2] and [Ni(dm-dddt)2] are direct band gap semiconductors, as determined by DFT and extended Hückel band structure calculations, with their conductivity drastically increased up to 0.05-3.3 S cm-1 under the highest applied pressures of 10-11 GPa. At equivalent applied pressures the dm-dddt materials are more conducting than the me-dddt ones, in agreement with the lower calculated activation energy and larger bands dispersion for the former. This trend follows the structural change when going from one to two methyl substituents, since the packing and intermolecular interactions are completely different between [Ni(dm-dddt)2] and [Ni(me-dddt)2], the packing of the latter being related to the one of the achiral parent [Ni(dddt)2]. Subtle differences of conductivity are also observed within both series of neutral complexes between the enantiopure and racemic forms. This represents the first series of chiral nickel bis(dithiolene) complexes which shows modulation of the conducting properties with the number of stereogenic centres, the conductivity, measured on single crystals, strongly increasing upon applying hydrostatic pressure. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


  • Anion ordering transition and Fermi surface electron-hole instabilities in the (TMTSF)2ClO4and (TMTSF)2NO3Bechgaard salts analyzed through the first-principles Lindhard response function

    Guster B., Pruneda M., Ordejón P., Canadell E., Pouget J.-P. Journal of Physics Condensed Matter; 33 (8, 085705) 2020. 10.1088/1361-648X/abc406. IF: 2.705

    The first-principles electron-hole Lindhard response function has been calculated and analyzed in detail for two (TMTSF)2 X (X = ClO4 and NO3) Bechgaard salts undergoing different anion-ordering (AO) transitions. The calculation was carried out using the real triclinic low-temperature structures. The evolution of the electron-hole response with temperature for both relaxed and quenched salts is discussed. It is shown that the 2k F response of the quenched samples of both salts display a low temperature curved and tilted triangular continuum of maxima. This is not the case for the relaxed samples. (TMTSF)2ClO4 in the AO state exhibits a more quasi-1D response than in the non AO state and relaxed (TMTSF)2NO3 shows a sharp maximum. The curved triangular plateau of the quenched samples results from multiple nesting of the warped quasi-1D Fermi surface which implies the existence of a large q range of electron-hole fluctuations. This broad maxima region is around 1% of the Brillouin zone area for the X = ClO4 salt (and X = PF6) but only 0.1% for the X = NO3 salt. It is suggested that the strong reduction of associated SDW fluctuations could explain the non detection of the SDW-mediated superconductivity in (TMTSF)2NO3. The calculated maxima of the Lindhard response nicely account for the modulation wave vector experimentally determined by NMR in the SDW ground state of the two salts. The critical AO wave vector for both salts is located in regions where the Lindhard response is a minimum so that they are unrelated to any electron-hole instability. The present first-principles calculation reveals 3D effects in the Lindhard response of the two salts at low temperature which are considerably more difficult to model in analytical approaches. © 2020 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • Fermi surface electron-hole instability of the (TMTSF)2PF6 Bechgaard salt revealed by the first-principles Lindhard response function

    Guster B., Pruneda M., Ordejón P., Canadell E., Pouget J.-P. Journal of Physics Condensed Matter; 32 (34, 345701) 2020. 10.1088/1361-648X/ab8522. IF: 2.707

    We report the first-principles DFT calculation of the electron-hole Lindhard response function of the (TMTSF)2PF6 Bechgaard salt using the real triclinic low-temperature structure. The Lindhard response is found to change considerably with temperature. Near the 2k F spin density wave (SDW) instability it has the shape of a broad triangular plateau as a result of the multiple nesting associated with the warped quasi-one-dimensional Fermi surface. The evolution of the 2k F broad maximum as well as the effect of pressure and deuteration is calculated and analyzed. The thermal dependence of the electron-hole coherence length deduced from these calculations compares very well with the experimental thermal evolution of the 2k F bond order wave correlation length. The existence of a triangular plateau of maxima in the low-temperature electron-hole Lindhard response of (TMTSF)2PF6 should favor a substantial mixing of q-dependent fluctuations which can have important consequences in understanding the phase diagram of the 2k F SDW ground state, the mechanism of superconductivity and the magneto-transport of this paradigmatic quasi-one-dimensional material. The first-principles DFT Lindhard response provides a very accurate and unbiased approach to the low-temperature instabilities of (TMTSF)2PF6 which can take into account in a simple way 3D effects and subtle structural variations, thus providing a very valuable tool in understanding the remarkable physics of molecular conductors. © 2020 IOP Publishing Ltd.


  • 2 × 2 charge density wave in single-layer TiTe2

    Guster B., Robles R., Pruneda M., Canadell E., Ordejón P. 2D Materials; 6 (1, 015027) 2019. 10.1088/2053-1583/aaf20b. IF: 7.343

    A density functional theory study concerning the origin of the recently reported 2 × 2 charge density wave (CDW) instability in single-layer TiTe2 is reported. It is shown that, whereas calculations employing the semi-local functional PBE favor the undistorted structure, the hybrid functional HSE06 correctly predicts a 2 × 2 distortion. The study suggests that the magnitude of the semimetallic overlap between the valence band top at - and the conduction band bottom at M is a key factor controlling the tendency towards the distortion. It is also shown that tensile strain stabilizes a 2 × 2 CDW, and we suggest that this fact could be further used to induce the instability in doublelayers of TiTe2, which in the absence of strain remain undistorted in the experiment. The driving force for the CDW instability seems to be the same phonon mediated mechanism acting for singlelayer TiSe2, although in single-layer TiTe2 the driving force is smaller, and the semimetallic character is kept below the transition temperature. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • Coexistence of Elastic Modulations in the Charge Density Wave State of 2 H-NbSe 2

    Guster B., Rubio-Verdú C., Robles R., Zaldívar J., Dreher P., Pruneda M., Silva-Guillén J.Á., Choi D.-J., Pascual J.I., Ugeda M.M., Ordejón P., Canadell E. Nano Letters; 19 (5): 3027 - 3032. 2019. 10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b00268. IF: 12.279

    Bulk and single-layer 2H-NbSe 2 exhibit identical charge density wave order (CDW) with a quasi-commensurate 3 × 3 superlattice periodicity. Here we combine scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) imaging at T = 1 K of 2H-NbSe 2 with first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations to investigate the structural atomic rearrangement of this CDW phase. Our calculations for single-layers reveal that six different atomic structures are compatible with the 3 × 3 CDW distortion, although all of them lie on a very narrow energy range of at most 3 meV per formula unit, suggesting the coexistence of such structures. Our atomically resolved STM images of bulk 2H-NbSe 2 unambiguously confirm this by identifying two of these structures. Remarkably, these structures differ from the X-ray crystal structure reported for the bulk 3 × 3 CDW which in fact is also one of the six DFT structures located for the single-layer. Our calculations also show that due to the minute energy difference between the different phases, the ground state of the 3 × 3 CDW could be extremely sensitive to doping, external strain or internal pressure within the crystal. The presence of multiphase CDW order in 2H-NbSe 2 may provide further understanding of its low temperature state and the competition between different instabilities. © 2019 American Chemical Society.

  • Evidence for the weak coupling scenario of the Peierls transition in the blue bronze

    Guster B., Pruneda M., Ordejón P., Canadell E., Pouget J.-P. Physical Review Materials; 3 (5, 055001) 2019. 10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.3.055001. IF: 2.926

    On the basis of first-principles DFT calculations the wave-vector and temperature dependencies of the Lindhard response function of the blue bronze K0.3MoO3 have been calculated. The kFI+kFII interband component of the response, which is responsible for the Peierls instability, has been quantitatively analyzed. It is found that (i) the electron-hole coherence length of this response determines the length scale of the experimental intrachain CDW correlations, and (ii) the intrachain q⥠dependence of such a response also determines the shape of the Kohn anomaly experimentally measured. These findings provide compelling evidence that the Peierls transition of the blue bronze K0.3MoO3 follows the weak electron-phonon coupling scenario in the adiabatic approximation, something that had not yet been proved on the basis of first-principles calculations for a real material. It is proposed that the CDW interchain coupling occurs through a Coulomb coupling between dipolar CDWs. The nature of the phonon mode leading to the dipolar nature of the CDWs is also discussed, and the relevance of these results to rationalize the CDW instabilities in other oxides and bronzes is pointed out. These findings are also contrasted with recent results for other CDW materials like chalcogenides and tellurides. © 2019 American Physical Society.

  • Polarization dependence of angle-resolved photoemission with submicron spatial resolution reveals emerging one-dimensionality of electrons in NbSe3

    Valbuena M.A., Chudzinski P., Pons S., Conejeros S., Alemany P., Canadell E., Berger H., Frantzeskakis E., Avila J., Asensio M.C., Giamarchi T., Grioni M. Physical Review B; 99 (7, 075118) 2019. 10.1103/PhysRevB.99.075118. IF: 3.736

    In materials with nearly commensurate band filling the electron liquid may spontaneously separate into components with distinct properties, yielding complex intra-and interunit cell ordering patterns and a reduced dimensionality. Polarization-dependent angle-resolved photoemission data with submicron spatial resolution demonstrate such an electronic self-organization in NbSe3, a compound considered to be a paradigm of charge order. The new data indicate the emergence of a novel order, and reveal the one-dimensional (1D) physics hidden in a material which naively could be considered the most three dimensional of all columnar chalcogenides. The 1D physics is evidenced by a new selection rule-in two polarizations we observe two strikingly different dispersions each closely resembling apparently contradicting results of previous studies of this material. © 2019 American Physical Society.


  • First principles analysis of the CDW instability of single-layer 1T-TiSe2 and its evolution with charge carrier density

    Guster B., Canadell E., Pruneda M., Ordejón P. 2D Materials; 5 (2, 025024) 2018. 10.1088/2053-1583/aab568. IF: 7.042

    We present a density functional theory study of the electronic structure of single-layer TiSe2, and focus on the charge density wave (CDW) instability present on this 2D material. We explain the periodicity of the CDW from the phonon band structure of the undistorted crystal, which is unstable under one of the phonon modes at the M point. This can be understood in terms of a partial band gap opening at the Fermi level, which we describe on the basis of the symmetry of the involved crystal orbitals, leading to an energy gain upon the displacement of the atoms following the phonon mode in a 2 × 1 structure. Furthermore, the combination of the corresponding phonons for the three inequivalent M points of the Brillouin zone leads to the 2 × 2 distortion characteristic of the CDW state. This leads to a further opening of a full gap, which reduces the energy of the 2 × 2 structure compared to the 2 × 1 one of a single M point phonon, and makes the CDW structure the most stable one. We also analyze the effect of charge injection into the layer on the structural instability. We predict that the 2 × 2 structure only survives for a certain range of doping levels, both for electrons and for holes, as doping reduces the energy gain due to the gap opening. We predict the transition from the commensurate 2 × 2 distortion to an incommensurate one with increasing wavelength upon increasing the doping level, followed by the appearance of the undistorted 1 × 1 structure for larger carrier concentrations. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.


  • Anisotropic features in the electronic structure of the two-dimensional transition metal trichalcogenide TiS3: Electron doping and plasmons

    Silva-Guillén J.A., Canadell E., Ordejón P., Guinea F., Roldán R. 2D Materials; 4 (2, 025085) 2017. 10.1088/2053-1583/aa6b92. IF: 6.937

    Analysis of the band structure of TiS3 single-layers suggests the possibility of changing their physical behaviour by injecting electron carriers. The anisotropy of the valence and conduction bands is explained in terms of their complex orbital composition. The nature of the Fermi surface and Lindhard response function for different doping concentrations is studied by means of firstprinciples DFT calculations. It is suggested that for electron doping levels x (number of electrons per unit cell) ~0.18-0.30e- the system could exhibit incommensurate charge or spin modulations which, however, would keep the metallic state whereas systems doped with smaller x would be 2D metals without any electronic instability. The effect of spin-orbit coupling in the band dispersion is analysed. The DFT effective masses are used to study the plasmon spectrum from an effective low energy model. We find that this material supports highly anisotropic plasmons, with opposite anisotropy for the electron and hole bands.


  • Electronic structure of 2H-NbSe2 single-layers in the CDW state

    Silva-Guillén J.Á., Ordejón P., Guinea F., Canadell E. 2D Materials; 3 (3, 035028) 2016. 10.1088/2053-1583/3/3/035028. IF: 9.611

    Adensity functional theory study of NbSe2"Qsingle-layers in the normal non-modulated and the 3"Q¡Ñ"Q3 CDWstates is reported.Weshow that, in the single layer, the CDW barely affects the Fermi surface of the system, thus ruling out a nesting mechanism as the driving force for the modulation. The CDW stabilizes levels lying around 1.35 eV below the Fermi level within the Se-based valence band but having a substantial Nb-VNb bonding character. The absence of interlayer interactions leads to the suppression of the pancake-like portion of the bulk Fermi surface in the single-layer.Weperform scanning tunneling microscopy simulations and find that the images noticeably change with the sign and magnitude of the voltage bias. The atomic corrugation of the Se sublayer induced by the modulation plays a primary role in leading to these images, but the electronic reorganization also has an important contribution. The analysis of the variation of these images with the bias voltage does not support a Fermi surface nesting mechanism for the CDW. It is also shown that underlying graphene layers (present in some of the recent experimental work) do not modify the conduction band, but do affect the shape of the valence band of NbSe2"Qsingle-layers. The relevance of these results in understanding recent physical measurements for NbSe2"Qsingle-layers is discussed. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • Nanotexturing to Enhance Photoluminescent Response of Atomically Thin Indium Selenide with Highly Tunable Band Gap

    Brotons-Gisbert M., Andres-Penares D., Suh J., Hidalgo F., Abargues R., Rodríguez-Cantó P.J., Segura A., Cros A., Tobias G., Canadell E., Ordejón P., Wu J., Martínez-Pastor J.P., Sánchez-Royo J.F. Nano Letters; 16 (5): 3221 - 3229. 2016. 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b00689. IF: 13.779

    Manipulating properties of matter at the nanoscale is the essence of nanotechnology, which has enabled the realization of quantum dots, nanotubes, metamaterials, and two-dimensional materials with tailored electronic and optical properties. Two-dimensional semiconductors have revealed promising perspectives in nanotechnology. However, the tunability of their physical properties is challenging for semiconductors studied until now. Here we show the ability of morphological manipulation strategies, such as nanotexturing or, at the limit, important surface roughness, to enhance light absorption and the luminescent response of atomically thin indium selenide nanosheets. Besides, quantum-size confinement effects make this two-dimensional semiconductor to exhibit one of the largest band gap tunability ranges observed in a two-dimensional semiconductor: from infrared, in bulk material, to visible wavelengths, at the single layer. These results are relevant for the design of new optoelectronic devices, including heterostructures of two-dimensional materials with optimized band gap functionalities and in-plane heterojunctions with minimal junction defect density. © 2016 American Chemical Society.


  • Quasiparticle spectra of 2H-NbSe2: Two-band superconductivity and the role of tunneling selectivity

    Noat Y., Silva-Guillén J.A., Cren T., Cherkez V., Brun C., Pons S., Debontridder F., Roditchev D., Sacks W., Cario L., Ordejón P., García A., Canadell E. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; 92 (13, 134510) 2015. 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.134510. IF: 3.736

    We have studied the superconducting state of 2H-NbSe2 by scanning tunneling spectroscopy along two different crystal orientations, the c and the a/b axes. Along the c axis a large gap is dominant in the spectra, while a smaller gap is measured along the a/b axis. We show that these spectra are accurately described by the McMillan model where the small gap is induced through the coupling to the band associated with the large gap. In order to assign the small and large gaps to specific parts of the 2H-NbSe2 Fermi surface, the electronic structure was studied using first-principles calculations. While we cannot exclude the possibility of intrinsic anisotropy of the gaps, we propose that the large gap opens in the Fermi surface cylinders located around the corner K points while the sheets located around Γ are associated with the small gap. An additional component of the Fermi surface, a selenium based pocket, plays an essential role in the tunneling process. The role of the charge density wave occurring in this material is also discussed. Finally, we are able to give a coherent description of the observed characteristics of the tunneling spectra of 2H-NbSe2 as well as the differences with 2H-NbS2 where no charge density wave state is present. Further experimental work, such as high-resolution ARPES, would be very useful to confirm our interpretation. The approach and modeling developed here could also be relevant for other compounds of the dichalcogenide family. © 2015 American Physical Society.

  • Tunneling and electronic structure of the two-gap superconductor MgB2

    Silva-Guillén J.A., Noat Y., Cren T., Sacks W., Canadell E., Ordejón P. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; 92 (6, 064514) 2015. 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.064514. IF: 3.736

    A combined experimental (superconductor-insulator-superconductor tunneling spectra) and theoretical (density functional theory) study of the two-gap superconductor MgB2 is reported. The calculations confirm that the small gap is associated with a π band mostly based on the boron pz orbitals leading to the three-dimensional band component of the Fermi surface. This channel almost completely dominates the tunneling images and spectra for c-axis-oriented samples and not the two-dimensional σ band. The origin of this effect is due to the faster decay of the electronic states associated with the boron px and py orbitals compared to those associated with the boron pz orbitals, together with the symmetry properties of the wave functions. The calculated tunneling channels and partial density of states for each band agree with the values deduced from precise fits of experimental tunneling spectra. The present approach provides a framework for the understanding of tunneling spectra and the nature of superconducting gaps of other multigap superconductors. © 2015 American Physical Society.


  • Density-wave instability in α- ( BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN) 4 studied by x-ray diffuse scattering and by first-principles calculations

    Foury-Leylekian P., Pouget J.-P., Lee Y.-J., Nieminen R.M., Ordejón P., Canadell E. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; 82 (13, 134116) 2010. 10.1103/PhysRevB.82.134116.

    α- (BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4 develops a density wave ground state below 8 K whose origin is still debated. Here we report a combined x-ray diffuse scattering and first-principles density functional theory study supporting the charge density wave (CDW) scenario. In particular, we observe a triply incommensurate anharmonic lattice modulation with intralayer wave vector components which coincide within experimental errors to the maximum of the calculated Lindhard response function. A detailed study of the structural aspects of the modulation shows that the CDW instability in α- ( BEDT-TTF) 2 KHg ( SCN) 4 is considerably more involved than those following a standard Peierls mechanism. We thus propose a microscopic mechanism where the CDW instability of the BEDT-TTF layer is triggered by the anion sublattice. Our mechanism also emphasizes the key role of the coupling of the BEDT-TTF and anion layers via the hydrogen bond network to set the global modulation. © 2010 The American Physical Society.