# Staff directory Pablo Ordejón

## Pablo Ordejón

Distinguished Researcher, Group Leader and Director
CSIC Research Professor on temporary leave
pablo.ordejon(ELIMINAR)@icn2.cat
Theory and Simulation - Management

## Publications

### 2022

• Atomically Sharp Lateral Superlattice Heterojunctions Built-In Nitrogen-Doped Nanoporous Graphene

Tenorio M., Moreno C., Febrer P., Castro-Esteban J., Ordejón P., Peña D., Pruneda M., Mugarza A. Advanced Materials; 34 (20, 2110099) 2022. 10.1002/adma.202110099. IF: 30.849

Nanometer scale lateral heterostructures with atomically sharp band discontinuities can be conceived as the 2D analogues of vertical Van der Waals heterostructures, where pristine properties of each component coexist with interfacial phenomena that result in a variety of exotic quantum phenomena. However, despite considerable advances in the fabrication of lateral heterostructures, controlling their covalent interfaces and band discontinuities with atomic precision, scaling down components and producing periodic, lattice-coherent superlattices still represent major challenges. Here, a synthetic strategy to fabricate nanometer scale, coherent lateral superlattice heterojunctions with atomically sharp band discontinuity is reported. By merging interdigitated arrays of different types of graphene nanoribbons by means of a novel on-surface reaction, superlattices of 1D, and chemically heterogeneous nanoporous junctions are obtained. The latter host subnanometer quantum dipoles and tunneling in-gap states, altogether expected to promote interfacial phenomena such as interribbon excitons or selective photocatalysis. © 2022 The Authors. Advanced Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

• Colossal phonon drag enhanced thermopower in lightly doped diamond

Li C., Protik N.H., Ordejón P., Broido D. Materials Today Physics; 27 (100740) 2022. 10.1016/j.mtphys.2022.100740.

Diamond is one of the most studied materials because of its unique combination of remarkable electrical, mechanical, thermal and optical properties. Using a fully self-consistent ab initio theory of coupled electron-phonon transport, we reveal another striking behavior: a huge drag enhancement of the thermopower of lightly doped diamond. Thermopower values of around 100,000 μV K−1 are found at 100 K, significantly exceeding the highest previously measured value in the correlated metal FeSb2, and occurring at much higher temperatures. The enormous thermopower in diamond arises primarily from exceptionally weak anharmonic phonon decay around and below 100 K that facilitates efficient momentum exchange between charge carriers and phonons through electron-phonon interactions. Exceedingly large thermoelectric power factors are also identified. This work gives insights into the physics of the coupled electron-phonon system in solids and advances our understanding of thermoelectric transport in the regime of strong drag. © 2022 Elsevier Ltd

• Competition between Ta-Ta and Te-Te bonding leading to the commensurate charge density wave in TaTe4

Guster B., Pruneda M., Ordejón P., Canadell E. Physical Review B; 105 (6, 064107) 2022. 10.1103/PhysRevB.105.064107. IF: 4.036

The origin of the charge density wave in TaTe4 is discussed on the basis of a first-principles density functional theory analysis of the Fermi surface, electron-hole response function, phonon band structure of the average structure, and structural optimization of the modulated phase. Analysis of the band structure and Fermi surface of the average structure clearly proves that despite the presence of TaTe4 chains in the crystal structure, TaTe4 is in fact a 3D material as far as the electronic structure near the Fermi level is concerned. A Fermi surface nesting mechanism is dismissed as the origin of the 2a×2a×3c structural modulation. The optimized 2a×2a×3c structure, which is found to be the more stable modulation in agreement with the experimental observations, can be obtained directly from a soft-phonon mode computed for the undistorted structure. Our results suggest that the driving force for the distortion is the maximization of Ta-Ta metal-metal bonding subject to inducing the minimum bonding decrease in the Te sublattice. © 2022 American Physical Society.

• Interference effects in one-dimensional moiré crystals

Wittemeier N., Verstraete M.J., Ordejón P., Zanolli Z. Carbon; 186: 416 - 422. 2022. 10.1016/j.carbon.2021.10.028. IF: 9.594

Interference effects in finite sections of one-dimensional moiré crystals are investigated using a Landauer-Büttiker formalism within the tight-binding approximation. We explain interlayer transport in double-wall carbon nanotubes and design a predictive model. Wave function interference is visible at the mesoscale: in the strong coupling regime, as a periodic modulation of quantum conductance and emergent localized states; in the localized-insulating regime, as a suppression of interlayer transport, and oscillations of the density of states. These results could be exploited to design quantum electronic devices. © 2021 The Authors

• Magnetic properties of coordination clusters with {Mn4} and {Co4} antiferromagnetic cores

Achilli S., Besson C., He X., Ordejón P., Meyer C., Zanolli Z. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics; 24 (6): 3780 - 3787. 2022. 10.1039/d1cp03904k. IF: 3.676

We present a joint experimental and theoretical characterization of the magnetic properties of coordination clusters with an antiferromagnetic core of four magnetic ions. Two different compounds are analyzed, with Co and Mn ions in the core. While both molecules are antiferromagnetic, they display different sensitivities to external magnetic field, according to the different atomic magnetic moments and strength of the intra-molecular magnetic couplings. In particular, the dependence of the magnetization versus field of the two molecules switches with temperature: at low temperature the magnetization is smaller in {Mn4} than in Co4, while the opposite happens at high temperature. Through a detailed analysis of the electronic and magnetic properties of the two compounds we identify a stronger magnetic interaction between the magnetic ions in {Mn4} with respect to {Co4}. Moreover {Co4} displays not negligible spin-orbit related effects that could affect the spin lifetime in future antiferromagnetic spintronic applications. We highlight the necessity to account for these spin-orbit effects together with electronic correlation effects for a reliable description of these compounds. © the Owner Societies.

• Manipulation of spin transport in graphene/transition metal dichalcogenide heterobilayers upon twisting

Pezo A., Zanolli Z., Wittemeier N., Ordejón P., Fazzio A., Roche S., Garcia J.H. 2D Materials; 9 (1, 015008) 2022. 10.1088/2053-1583/ac3378. IF: 7.103

Proximity effects between layered materials trigger a plethora of novel and exotic quantum transport phenomena. Besides, the capability to modulate the nature and strength of proximity effects by changing crystalline and interfacial symmetries offers a vast playground to optimize physical properties of relevance for innovative applications. In this work, we use large-scale first principles calculations to demonstrate that strain and twist-angle strongly vary the spin–orbit coupling (SOC) in graphene/transition metal dichalcogenide heterobilayers. Such a change results in a modulation of the spin relaxation times by up to two orders of magnitude. Additionally, the relative strengths of valley-Zeeman and Rashba SOC can be tailored upon twisting, which can turn the system into an ideal Dirac–Rashba regime or generate transitions between topological states of matter. These results shed new light on the debated variability of SOC and clarify how lattice deformations can be used as a knob to control spin transport. Our outcomes also suggest complex spin transport in polycrystalline materials, due to the random variation of grain orientation, which could reflect in large spatial fluctuations of SOC fields. © 2021 IOP Publishing Ltd

• The elphbolt ab initio solver for the coupled electron-phonon Boltzmann transport equations

Protik N.H., Li C., Pruneda M., Broido D., Ordejón P. npj Computational Materials; 8 (1, 28) 2022. 10.1038/s41524-022-00710-0. IF: 12.241

elphbolt is a modern Fortran (2018 standard) code for efficiently solving the coupled electron–phonon Boltzmann transport equations from first principles. Using results from density functional and density functional perturbation theory as inputs, it can calculate the effect of the non-equilibrium phonons on the electronic transport (phonon drag) and non-equilibrium electrons on the phononic transport (electron drag) in a fully self-consistent manner and obeying the constraints mandated by thermodynamics. It can calculate the lattice, charge, and thermoelectric transport coefficients for the temperature gradient and electric fields, and the effect of the mutual electron–phonon drag on these transport properties. The code fully exploits the symmetries of the crystal and the transport-active window to allow the sampling of extremely fine electron and phonon wave vector meshes required for accurately capturing the drag phenomena. The coarray feature of modern Fortran, which offers native and convenient support for parallelization, is utilized. The code is compact, readable, well-documented, and extensible by design. © 2022, The Author(s).

• Tuning the topological band gap of bismuthene with silicon-based substrates

Wittemeier N., Ordejón P., Zanolli Z. JPhys Materials; 5 (3, 035002) 2022. 10.1088/2515-7639/ac84ad.

Some metastable polymorphs of bismuth monolayers (bismuthene) can host non-trivial topological phases. However, it remains unclear whether these polymorphs can become stable through interaction with a substrate, whether their topological properties are preserved, and how to design an optimal substrate to make the topological phase more robust. Using first-principles techniques, we demonstrate that bismuthene polymorphs can become stable over silicon carbide (SiC), silicon (Si), and silicon dioxide (SiO2) and that proximity interaction in these heterostructures has a significant effect on the electronic structure of the monolayer, even when bonding is weak. We show that van der Waals interactions and the breaking of the sublattice symmetry are the main factors driving changes in the electronic structure in non-covalently binding heterostructures. Our work demonstrates that substrate interaction can strengthen the topological properties of bismuthene polymorphs and make them accessible for experimental investigations and technological applications. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd.

• Unraveling Heat Transport and Dissipation in Suspended MoSe2 from Bulk to Monolayer

Saleta Reig D., Varghese S., Farris R., Block A., Mehew J.D., Hellman O., Woźniak P., Sledzinska M., El Sachat A., Chávez-Ángel E., Valenzuela S.O., van Hulst N.F., Ordejón P., Zanolli Z., Sotomayor Torres C.M., Verstraete M.J., Tielrooij K.-J. Advanced Materials; 34 (10, 2108352) 2022. 10.1002/adma.202108352. IF: 30.849

Understanding heat flow in layered transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) crystals is crucial for applications exploiting these materials. Despite significant efforts, several basic thermal transport properties of TMDs are currently not well understood, in particular how transport is affected by material thickness and the material's environment. This combined experimental–theoretical study establishes a unifying physical picture of the intrinsic lattice thermal conductivity of the representative TMD MoSe2. Thermal conductivity measurements using Raman thermometry on a large set of clean, crystalline, suspended crystals with systematically varied thickness are combined with ab initio simulations with phonons at finite temperature. The results show that phonon dispersions and lifetimes change strongly with thickness, yet the thinnest TMD films exhibit an in-plane thermal conductivity that is only marginally smaller than that of bulk crystals. This is the result of compensating phonon contributions, in particular heat-carrying modes around ≈0.1 THz in (sub)nanometer thin films, with a surprisingly long mean free path of several micrometers. This behavior arises directly from the layered nature of the material. Furthermore, out-of-plane heat dissipation to air molecules is remarkably efficient, in particular for the thinnest crystals, increasing the apparent thermal conductivity of monolayer MoSe2 by an order of magnitude. These results are crucial for the design of (flexible) TMD-based (opto-)electronic applications. © 2022 The Authors. Advanced Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH

### 2021

• Basic aspects of the charge density wave instability of transition metal trichalcogenides NbSe3and monoclinic-TaS3

Guster B., Pruneda M., Ordejón P., Canadell E., Pouget J.-P. Journal of Physics Condensed Matter; 33 (48, 485401) 2021. 10.1088/1361-648X/ac238a. IF: 2.333

NbSe3 and monoclinic-TaS3 (m-TaS3) are quasi-1D metals containing three different types of chains and undergoing two different charge density wave Peierls transitions at TP1 and TP2 associated with type III and type I chains, respectively. The nature of these transitions is discussed on the basis of first-principles DFT calculation of their Fermi surface (FS) and electron-hole response function. Because of the stronger inter-chain interactions, the FS and electron-hole response function are considerably more complex for NbSe3 than m-TaS3; however a common scenario can be put forward to rationalize the results. The intra-chain inter-band nesting processes dominate the strongest response for both type I and type III chains of the two compounds. Two well-defined maxima of the electron-hole response for NbSe3 are found with the (0a∗, 0c∗) and (1/2a∗, 1/2c∗) transverse components at TP1 and TP2, respectively, whereas the second maximum is not observed for m-TaS3 at TP2. Analysis of the different inter-chain coupling mechanisms leads to the conclusion that FS nesting effects are only relevant to set the transverse a∗ components in NbSe3. The strongest inter-chain Coulomb coupling mechanism must be taken into account for the transverse coupling along c∗ in NbSe3 and along both a∗ and c∗ for m-TaS3. Phonon spectrum calculations reveal the formation of a giant 2kF Kohn anomaly for m-TaS3. All these results support a weak coupling scenario for the Peierls transition of transition metal trichalcogenides. © 2021 IOP Publishing Ltd.

• Validity of the on-site spin-orbit coupling approximation

Cuadrado R., Robles R., García A., Pruneda M., Ordejón P., Ferrer J., Cerdá J.I. Physical Review B; 104 (19, 195104) 2021. 10.1103/PhysRevB.104.195104. IF: 4.036

Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is generally understood as a highly localized interaction within each atom, whereby core electrons holding large J splittings transfer the SOC to the valence electrons of the same atom, while their direct impact on neighbor valence orbitals is usually small. Seivane and Ferrer [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 183401 (2007)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.99.183401] proposed an approach within a tight-binding type ab initio framework assuming that the transfer of SOC from core to valence orbitals only takes place when both are on the same atom, leading to the so-called on-site approximation, which then has been successfully applied to a variety of systems. In this work we thoroughly test its general validity by confronting SOC related properties such as spin splittings, spin textures, or magnetic anisotropies calculated under the on-site approximation versus the more general approach where all the contributions to the SOC, including three-center integrals, are explicitly included. After considering a variety of systems with different dimensionalities, all presenting a strong SOC, we conclude that although the on-site approximation often provides accurate results, it breaks down in some systems where 5d electrons are close to the Fermi level due to their strong SOC and moderately large spatial extension. Furthermore, there are a few examples where subtle inaccuracies lead to qualitatively wrong conclusions, the most clear case being the doping of the topological surface state in Bi2Se3(0001). Finally, magnetic anisotropy energies calculated under this approximation tend to be underestimated. © 2021 American Physical Society.

### 2020

• Anion ordering transition and Fermi surface electron-hole instabilities in the (TMTSF)2ClO4and (TMTSF)2NO3Bechgaard salts analyzed through the first-principles Lindhard response function

Guster B., Pruneda M., Ordejón P., Canadell E., Pouget J.-P. Journal of Physics Condensed Matter; 33 (8, 085705) 2020. 10.1088/1361-648X/abc406. IF: 2.705

The first-principles electron-hole Lindhard response function has been calculated and analyzed in detail for two (TMTSF)2 X (X = ClO4 and NO3) Bechgaard salts undergoing different anion-ordering (AO) transitions. The calculation was carried out using the real triclinic low-temperature structures. The evolution of the electron-hole response with temperature for both relaxed and quenched salts is discussed. It is shown that the 2k F response of the quenched samples of both salts display a low temperature curved and tilted triangular continuum of maxima. This is not the case for the relaxed samples. (TMTSF)2ClO4 in the AO state exhibits a more quasi-1D response than in the non AO state and relaxed (TMTSF)2NO3 shows a sharp maximum. The curved triangular plateau of the quenched samples results from multiple nesting of the warped quasi-1D Fermi surface which implies the existence of a large q range of electron-hole fluctuations. This broad maxima region is around 1% of the Brillouin zone area for the X = ClO4 salt (and X = PF6) but only 0.1% for the X = NO3 salt. It is suggested that the strong reduction of associated SDW fluctuations could explain the non detection of the SDW-mediated superconductivity in (TMTSF)2NO3. The calculated maxima of the Lindhard response nicely account for the modulation wave vector experimentally determined by NMR in the SDW ground state of the two salts. The critical AO wave vector for both salts is located in regions where the Lindhard response is a minimum so that they are unrelated to any electron-hole instability. The present first-principles calculation reveals 3D effects in the Lindhard response of the two salts at low temperature which are considerably more difficult to model in analytical approaches. © 2020 IOP Publishing Ltd.

• Fermi surface electron-hole instability of the (TMTSF)2PF6 Bechgaard salt revealed by the first-principles Lindhard response function

Guster B., Pruneda M., Ordejón P., Canadell E., Pouget J.-P. Journal of Physics Condensed Matter; 32 (34, 345701) 2020. 10.1088/1361-648X/ab8522. IF: 2.707

We report the first-principles DFT calculation of the electron-hole Lindhard response function of the (TMTSF)2PF6 Bechgaard salt using the real triclinic low-temperature structure. The Lindhard response is found to change considerably with temperature. Near the 2k F spin density wave (SDW) instability it has the shape of a broad triangular plateau as a result of the multiple nesting associated with the warped quasi-one-dimensional Fermi surface. The evolution of the 2k F broad maximum as well as the effect of pressure and deuteration is calculated and analyzed. The thermal dependence of the electron-hole coherence length deduced from these calculations compares very well with the experimental thermal evolution of the 2k F bond order wave correlation length. The existence of a triangular plateau of maxima in the low-temperature electron-hole Lindhard response of (TMTSF)2PF6 should favor a substantial mixing of q-dependent fluctuations which can have important consequences in understanding the phase diagram of the 2k F SDW ground state, the mechanism of superconductivity and the magneto-transport of this paradigmatic quasi-one-dimensional material. The first-principles DFT Lindhard response provides a very accurate and unbiased approach to the low-temperature instabilities of (TMTSF)2PF6 which can take into account in a simple way 3D effects and subtle structural variations, thus providing a very valuable tool in understanding the remarkable physics of molecular conductors. © 2020 IOP Publishing Ltd.

• Siesta: Recent developments and applications

García A., Papior N., Akhtar A., Artacho E., Blum V., Bosoni E., Brandimarte P., Brandbyge M., Cerdá J.I., Corsetti F., Cuadrado R., Dikan V., Ferrer J., Gale J., García-Fernández P., García-Suárez V.M., García S., Huhs G., Illera S., Korytár R., Koval P., Lebedeva I., Lin L., López-Tarifa P., Mayo S.G., Mohr S., Ordejón P., Postnikov A., Pouillon Y., Pruneda M., Robles R., Sánchez-Portal D., Soler J.M., Ullah R., Yu V.W.-Z., Junquera J. The Journal of chemical physics; 152 (20): 204108. 2020. 10.1063/5.0005077. IF: 2.991

A review of the present status, recent enhancements, and applicability of the Siesta program is presented. Since its debut in the mid-1990s, Siesta's flexibility, efficiency, and free distribution have given advanced materials simulation capabilities to many groups worldwide. The core methodological scheme of Siesta combines finite-support pseudo-atomic orbitals as basis sets, norm-conserving pseudopotentials, and a real-space grid for the representation of charge density and potentials and the computation of their associated matrix elements. Here, we describe the more recent implementations on top of that core scheme, which include full spin-orbit interaction, non-repeated and multiple-contact ballistic electron transport, density functional theory (DFT)+U and hybrid functionals, time-dependent DFT, novel reduced-scaling solvers, density-functional perturbation theory, efficient van der Waals non-local density functionals, and enhanced molecular-dynamics options. In addition, a substantial effort has been made in enhancing interoperability and interfacing with other codes and utilities, such as wannier90 and the second-principles modeling it can be used for, an AiiDA plugin for workflow automatization, interface to Lua for steering Siesta runs, and various post-processing utilities. Siesta has also been engaged in the Electronic Structure Library effort from its inception, which has allowed the sharing of various low-level libraries, as well as data standards and support for them, particularly the PSeudopotential Markup Language definition and library for transferable pseudopotentials, and the interface to the ELectronic Structure Infrastructure library of solvers. Code sharing is made easier by the new open-source licensing model of the program. This review also presents examples of application of the capabilities of the code, as well as a view of on-going and future developments.

### 2019

• 2 × 2 charge density wave in single-layer TiTe2

Guster B., Robles R., Pruneda M., Canadell E., Ordejón P. 2D Materials; 6 (1, 015027) 2019. 10.1088/2053-1583/aaf20b. IF: 7.343

A density functional theory study concerning the origin of the recently reported 2 × 2 charge density wave (CDW) instability in single-layer TiTe2 is reported. It is shown that, whereas calculations employing the semi-local functional PBE favor the undistorted structure, the hybrid functional HSE06 correctly predicts a 2 × 2 distortion. The study suggests that the magnitude of the semimetallic overlap between the valence band top at - and the conduction band bottom at M is a key factor controlling the tendency towards the distortion. It is also shown that tensile strain stabilizes a 2 × 2 CDW, and we suggest that this fact could be further used to induce the instability in doublelayers of TiTe2, which in the absence of strain remain undistorted in the experiment. The driving force for the CDW instability seems to be the same phonon mediated mechanism acting for singlelayer TiSe2, although in single-layer TiTe2 the driving force is smaller, and the semimetallic character is kept below the transition temperature. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

• Coexistence of Elastic Modulations in the Charge Density Wave State of 2 H-NbSe 2

Guster B., Rubio-Verdú C., Robles R., Zaldívar J., Dreher P., Pruneda M., Silva-Guillén J.Á., Choi D.-J., Pascual J.I., Ugeda M.M., Ordejón P., Canadell E. Nano Letters; 19 (5): 3027 - 3032. 2019. 10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b00268. IF: 12.279

Bulk and single-layer 2H-NbSe 2 exhibit identical charge density wave order (CDW) with a quasi-commensurate 3 × 3 superlattice periodicity. Here we combine scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) imaging at T = 1 K of 2H-NbSe 2 with first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations to investigate the structural atomic rearrangement of this CDW phase. Our calculations for single-layers reveal that six different atomic structures are compatible with the 3 × 3 CDW distortion, although all of them lie on a very narrow energy range of at most 3 meV per formula unit, suggesting the coexistence of such structures. Our atomically resolved STM images of bulk 2H-NbSe 2 unambiguously confirm this by identifying two of these structures. Remarkably, these structures differ from the X-ray crystal structure reported for the bulk 3 × 3 CDW which in fact is also one of the six DFT structures located for the single-layer. Our calculations also show that due to the minute energy difference between the different phases, the ground state of the 3 × 3 CDW could be extremely sensitive to doping, external strain or internal pressure within the crystal. The presence of multiphase CDW order in 2H-NbSe 2 may provide further understanding of its low temperature state and the competition between different instabilities. © 2019 American Chemical Society.

• Evidence for the weak coupling scenario of the Peierls transition in the blue bronze

Guster B., Pruneda M., Ordejón P., Canadell E., Pouget J.-P. Physical Review Materials; 3 (5, 055001) 2019. 10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.3.055001. IF: 2.926

On the basis of first-principles DFT calculations the wave-vector and temperature dependencies of the Lindhard response function of the blue bronze K0.3MoO3 have been calculated. The kFI+kFII interband component of the response, which is responsible for the Peierls instability, has been quantitatively analyzed. It is found that (i) the electron-hole coherence length of this response determines the length scale of the experimental intrachain CDW correlations, and (ii) the intrachain qâ¥ dependence of such a response also determines the shape of the Kohn anomaly experimentally measured. These findings provide compelling evidence that the Peierls transition of the blue bronze K0.3MoO3 follows the weak electron-phonon coupling scenario in the adiabatic approximation, something that had not yet been proved on the basis of first-principles calculations for a real material. It is proposed that the CDW interchain coupling occurs through a Coulomb coupling between dipolar CDWs. The nature of the phonon mode leading to the dipolar nature of the CDWs is also discussed, and the relevance of these results to rationalize the CDW instabilities in other oxides and bronzes is pointed out. These findings are also contrasted with recent results for other CDW materials like chalcogenides and tellurides. © 2019 American Physical Society.

### 2018

• Addressing the Environment Electrostatic Effect on Ballistic Electron Transport in Large Systems: A QM/MM-NEGF Approach

Feliciano G.T., Sanz-Navarro C., Coutinho-Neto M.D., Ordejón P., Scheicher R.H., Rocha A.R. Journal of Physical Chemistry B; 122 (2): 485 - 492. 2018. 10.1021/acs.jpcb.7b03475. IF: 3.146

The effects of the environment in nanoscopic materials can play a crucial role in device design. Particularly in biosensors, where the system is usually embedded in a solution, water and ions have to be taken into consideration in atomistic simulations of electronic transport for a realistic description of the system. In this work, we present a methodology that combines quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics methods (QM/MM) with the nonequilibrium Green's function framework to simulate the electronic transport properties of nanoscopic devices in the presence of solvents. As a case in point, we present further results for DNA translocation through a graphene nanopore. In particular, we take a closer look into general assumptions in a previous work. For this sake, we consider larger QM regions that include the first two solvation shells and investigate the effects of adding extra k-points to the NEGF calculations. The transverse conductance is then calculated in a prototype sequencing device in order to highlight the effects of the solvent. © 2017 American Chemical Society.

• First principles analysis of the CDW instability of single-layer 1T-TiSe2 and its evolution with charge carrier density

Guster B., Canadell E., Pruneda M., Ordejón P. 2D Materials; 5 (2, 025024) 2018. 10.1088/2053-1583/aab568. IF: 7.042

We present a density functional theory study of the electronic structure of single-layer TiSe2, and focus on the charge density wave (CDW) instability present on this 2D material. We explain the periodicity of the CDW from the phonon band structure of the undistorted crystal, which is unstable under one of the phonon modes at the M point. This can be understood in terms of a partial band gap opening at the Fermi level, which we describe on the basis of the symmetry of the involved crystal orbitals, leading to an energy gain upon the displacement of the atoms following the phonon mode in a 2 × 1 structure. Furthermore, the combination of the corresponding phonons for the three inequivalent M points of the Brillouin zone leads to the 2 × 2 distortion characteristic of the CDW state. This leads to a further opening of a full gap, which reduces the energy of the 2 × 2 structure compared to the 2 × 1 one of a single M point phonon, and makes the CDW structure the most stable one. We also analyze the effect of charge injection into the layer on the structural instability. We predict that the 2 × 2 structure only survives for a certain range of doping levels, both for electrons and for holes, as doping reduces the energy gain due to the gap opening. We predict the transition from the commensurate 2 × 2 distortion to an incommensurate one with increasing wavelength upon increasing the doping level, followed by the appearance of the undistorted 1 × 1 structure for larger carrier concentrations. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

• Implementation of non-collinear spin-constrained DFT calculations in SIESTA with a fully relativistic Hamiltonian

R. Cuadrado, M. Pruneda, A. García, P. Ordejón Journal of Physics: Materials; 1 (1) 2018. 10.1088/2515-7639/aae7db.

An accurate and efficient general method to constrain the magnetization of individual atoms or groups of atoms within a fully relativistic non-collinear spin density functional theory formalism is presented and implemented within the SIESTA code. This approach can be applied to study a variety of complex magnetic configurations and to build effective magnetic Hamiltonians for multiscaling micromagnetic simulations. As an example, the method is applied to obtain constrained magnetic states for a Fe3 structure, and for a S = 1/2 kagome layer (vanadium oxyfluoride V7O6F18). Of paramount importance in spintronics is the control and manipulation of magnetic interactions between constituent species, characterized mainly by the pair-wise magnetic exchange tensor Jij. By constraining the atomic magnetizations of an infinite Fe linear chain, the total selfconsistent energy values are mapped to a generalized Heisenberg model, obtaining not only the diagonal terms of Jij but also the off-diagonal contributions due to the explicit presence of the spin–orbit coupling in the formalism. The diagonal values of Jij promote short ranged ferromagnetic alignment whilst the non-zero off-diagonal values can lead to the formation of the spiral states in the chain, as expected from theory.

• Mechanisms behind the enhancement of thermal properties of graphene nanofluids

Rodríguez-Laguna M.R., Castro-Alvarez A., Sledzinska M., Maire J., Costanzo F., Ensing B., Pruneda M., Ordejón P., Sotomayor Torres C.M., Gómez-Romero P., Chávez-Ángel E. Nanoscale; 10 (32): 15402 - 15409. 2018. 10.1039/c8nr02762e. IF: 7.233

While the dispersion of nanomaterials is known to be effective in enhancing the thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of fluids, the mechanisms behind this enhancement remain to be elucidated. Herein, we report on highly stable, surfactant-free graphene nanofluids, based on N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), with enhanced thermal properties. An increase of up to 48% in thermal conductivity and 18% in specific heat capacity was measured. The blue shift of several Raman bands with increasing graphene concentration in DMF indicates that there is a modification in the vibrational energy of the bonds associated with these modes, affecting all the molecules in the liquid. This result indicates that graphene has the ability to affect solvent molecules at long-range, in terms of vibrational energy. Density functional theory and molecular dynamics simulations were used to gather data on the interaction between graphene and solvent, and to investigate a possible order induced by graphene on the solvent. The simulations showed a parallel orientation of DMF towards graphene, favoring π-π stacking. Furthermore, a local order of DMF molecules around graphene was observed suggesting that both this special kind of interaction and the induced local order may contribute to the enhancement of the fluid's thermal properties. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

• Spin Proximity Effects in Graphene/Topological Insulator Heterostructures

Song K., Soriano D., Cummings A.W., Robles R., Ordejón P., Roche S. Nano Letters; 18 (3): 2033 - 2039. 2018. 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b05482. IF: 12.080

Enhancing the spin-orbit interaction in graphene, via proximity effects with topological insulators, could create a novel 2D system that combines nontrivial spin textures with high electron mobility. To engineer practical spintronics applications with such graphene/topological insulator (Gr/TI) heterostructures, an understanding of the hybrid spin-dependent properties is essential. However, to date, despite the large number of experimental studies on Gr/TI heterostructures reporting a great variety of remarkable (spin) transport phenomena, little is known about the true nature of the spin texture of the interface states as well as their role on the measured properties. Here, we use ab initio simulations and tight-binding models to determine the precise spin texture of electronic states in graphene interfaced with a Bi2Se3 topological insulator. Our calculations predict the emergence of a giant spin lifetime anisotropy in the graphene layer, which should be a measurable hallmark of spin transport in Gr/TI heterostructures and suggest novel types of spin devices. © 2018 American Chemical Society.

### 2017

• Ab initio study of electron-phonon coupling in rubrene

Ordejón P., Boskovic D., Panhans M., Ortmann F. Physical Review B; 96 (3, 035202) 2017. 10.1103/PhysRevB.96.035202. IF: 3.836

The use of ab initio methods for accurate simulations of electronic, phononic, and electron-phonon properties of molecular materials such as organic crystals is a challenge that is often tackled stepwise based on molecular properties calculated in gas phase and perturbatively treated parameters relevant for solid phases. In contrast, in this work we report a full first-principles description of such properties for the prototypical rubrene crystals. More specifically, we determine a Holstein-Peierls-type Hamiltonian for rubrene, including local and nonlocal electron-phonon couplings. Thereby, a recipe for circumventing the issue of numerical inaccuracies with low-frequency phonons is presented. In addition, we study the phenyl group motion with a molecular dynamics approach. © 2017 American Physical Society.

• Anisotropic features in the electronic structure of the two-dimensional transition metal trichalcogenide TiS3: Electron doping and plasmons

Silva-Guillén J.A., Canadell E., Ordejón P., Guinea F., Roldán R. 2D Materials; 4 (2, 025085) 2017. 10.1088/2053-1583/aa6b92. IF: 6.937

Analysis of the band structure of TiS3 single-layers suggests the possibility of changing their physical behaviour by injecting electron carriers. The anisotropy of the valence and conduction bands is explained in terms of their complex orbital composition. The nature of the Fermi surface and Lindhard response function for different doping concentrations is studied by means of firstprinciples DFT calculations. It is suggested that for electron doping levels x (number of electrons per unit cell) ~0.18-0.30e- the system could exhibit incommensurate charge or spin modulations which, however, would keep the metallic state whereas systems doped with smaller x would be 2D metals without any electronic instability. The effect of spin-orbit coupling in the band dispersion is analysed. The DFT effective masses are used to study the plasmon spectrum from an effective low energy model. We find that this material supports highly anisotropic plasmons, with opposite anisotropy for the electron and hole bands.

• Growth of Twin-Free and Low-Doped Topological Insulators on BaF2(111)

Bonell F., Cuxart M.G., Song K., Robles R., Ordejón P., Roche S., Mugarza A., Valenzuela S.O. Crystal Growth and Design; 17 (9): 4655 - 4660. 2017. 10.1021/acs.cgd.7b00525. IF: 4.055

We demonstrate the growth of twin-free Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 topological insulators by molecular beam epitaxy and a sizable reduction of the twin density in Bi2Se3 on lattice-matched BaF2(111) substrates. Using X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy, we systematically investigate the parameters influencing the formation of twin domains and the morphology of the films, and show that Se- and Te-based alloys differ by their growth mechanism. Optimum growth parameters are shown to result in intrinsically low-doped films, as probed by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. In contrast to previous approaches in which twin-free Bi2Se3 films are achieved by increasing the substrate roughness, the quality of our Bi2Te3 is superior on the flattest BaF2 substrates. This finding indicates that, during nucleation, the films not only interact with the topmost atomic substrate layer but also with buried layers that provide the necessary stacking information to promote a single twin, an observation that is supported by ab initio calculations. © 2017 American Chemical Society.

• Thermal and transport properties of pristine single-layer hexagonal boron nitride: A first principles investigation

Sergio Illera, Miguel Pruneda, Luciano Colombo, Pablo Ordejón Physical Review Materials; 1 (4): 44006. 2017. 10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.1.044006.

Molecular dynamics is used in combination with density functional theory to determine the thermal transport properties of the single-layer hexagonal boron nitride (SL h-BN) from ab initio calculations. Within this approach, the possible anisotropy in the thermal conductivity of SL h-BN was studied. For samples with finite length (of the order of 20 nm), we find a significant dependence of the conductivity on the transport direction. We make a direct comparison of the results obtained for two-dimensional (2D) layers and for nanoribbons with similar size, and show that, as a consequence of edge scattering, the ribbon geometry induces a significant decrease in the conductivity, and produces a strong change in the anisotropy. For the zigzag and armchair transport directions, the dependence of the thermal conductivity on the system length was also obtained, as well as its value in the 2D bulk limit case. A very small anisotropy was found for the limit of long samples, in contrast with the finite length ones. This is explained analyzing the dependence of the average square group velocities on the transport direction and the phonon frequency.

• Voltage-Induced Coercivity Reduction in Nanoporous Alloy Films: A Boost toward Energy-Efficient Magnetic Actuation

Quintana A., Zhang J., Isarain-Chávez E., Menéndez E., Cuadrado R., Robles R., Baró M.D., Guerrero M., Pané S., Nelson B.J., Müller C.M., Ordejón P., Nogués J., Pellicer E., Sort J. Advanced Functional Materials; 27 (32, 1701904) 2017. 10.1002/adfm.201701904. IF: 12.124

Magnetic data storage and magnetically actuated devices are conventionally controlled by magnetic fields generated using electric currents. This involves significant power dissipation by Joule heating effect. To optimize energy efficiency, manipulation of magnetic information with lower magnetic fields (i.e., lower electric currents) is desirable. This can be accomplished by reducing the coercivity of the actuated material. Here, a drastic reduction of coercivity is observed at room temperature in thick (≈600 nm), nanoporous, electrodeposited Cu–Ni films by simply subjecting them to the action of an electric field. The effect is due to voltage-induced changes in the magnetic anisotropy. The large surface-area-to-volume ratio and the ultranarrow pore walls of the system allow the whole film, and not only the topmost surface, to effectively contribute to the observed magnetoelectric effect. This waives the stringent “ultrathin-film requirement” from previous studies, where small voltage-driven coercivity variations were reported. This observation expands the already wide range of applications of nanoporous materials (hitherto in areas like energy storage or catalysis) and it opens new paradigms in the fields of spintronics, computation, and magnetic actuation in general. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

### 2016

• Electronic structure of 2H-NbSe2 single-layers in the CDW state

Silva-Guillén J.Á., Ordejón P., Guinea F., Canadell E. 2D Materials; 3 (3, 035028) 2016. 10.1088/2053-1583/3/3/035028. IF: 9.611

Adensity functional theory study of NbSe2"Qsingle-layers in the normal non-modulated and the 3"Q¡Ñ"Q3 CDWstates is reported.Weshow that, in the single layer, the CDW barely affects the Fermi surface of the system, thus ruling out a nesting mechanism as the driving force for the modulation. The CDW stabilizes levels lying around 1.35 eV below the Fermi level within the Se-based valence band but having a substantial Nb-VNb bonding character. The absence of interlayer interactions leads to the suppression of the pancake-like portion of the bulk Fermi surface in the single-layer.Weperform scanning tunneling microscopy simulations and find that the images noticeably change with the sign and magnitude of the voltage bias. The atomic corrugation of the Se sublayer induced by the modulation plays a primary role in leading to these images, but the electronic reorganization also has an important contribution. The analysis of the variation of these images with the bias voltage does not support a Fermi surface nesting mechanism for the CDW. It is also shown that underlying graphene layers (present in some of the recent experimental work) do not modify the conduction band, but do affect the shape of the valence band of NbSe2"Qsingle-layers. The relevance of these results in understanding recent physical measurements for NbSe2"Qsingle-layers is discussed. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

• How disorder affects topological surface states in the limit of ultrathin Bi2Se3 films

Song K., Soriano D., Robles R., Ordejon P., Roche S. 2D Materials; 3 (4, 045007) 2016. 10.1088/2053-1583/3/4/045007. IF: 9.611

We present a first-principles study of electronic properties of ultrathin films of topological insulators (TIs) and scrutinize the role of disorder on the robustness of topological surface states, which can be analysed through their spin textures. The presence of twin grain boundaries is found to increase the band gap of the film, while preserving the spin texture of states in first conduction and valence bands. Differently, partial hydrogenation of one surface not only results in some self-doping effect, but also provokes some alteration of the spin texture symmetry of the electronic states. The formation of a new Dirac cone at M-point of the Brillouin zone of the hydrogenated surface, together with a modified spin texture characteristics are consistent with a dominant Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction type, more usually observed in 3D materials. Our findings indicate that defects can either be detrimental or beneficial for exploring spin transport of surface states in the limit of ultrathin films of TIs, which maximizes surface over bulk phenomena. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

• Nanotexturing to Enhance Photoluminescent Response of Atomically Thin Indium Selenide with Highly Tunable Band Gap

Brotons-Gisbert M., Andres-Penares D., Suh J., Hidalgo F., Abargues R., Rodríguez-Cantó P.J., Segura A., Cros A., Tobias G., Canadell E., Ordejón P., Wu J., Martínez-Pastor J.P., Sánchez-Royo J.F. Nano Letters; 16 (5): 3221 - 3229. 2016. 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b00689. IF: 13.779

Manipulating properties of matter at the nanoscale is the essence of nanotechnology, which has enabled the realization of quantum dots, nanotubes, metamaterials, and two-dimensional materials with tailored electronic and optical properties. Two-dimensional semiconductors have revealed promising perspectives in nanotechnology. However, the tunability of their physical properties is challenging for semiconductors studied until now. Here we show the ability of morphological manipulation strategies, such as nanotexturing or, at the limit, important surface roughness, to enhance light absorption and the luminescent response of atomically thin indium selenide nanosheets. Besides, quantum-size confinement effects make this two-dimensional semiconductor to exhibit one of the largest band gap tunability ranges observed in a two-dimensional semiconductor: from infrared, in bulk material, to visible wavelengths, at the single layer. These results are relevant for the design of new optoelectronic devices, including heterostructures of two-dimensional materials with optimized band gap functionalities and in-plane heterojunctions with minimal junction defect density. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

### 2015

• Capacitive DNA Detection Driven by Electronic Charge Fluctuations in a Graphene Nanopore

Feliciano G.T., Sanz-Navarro C., Coutinho-Neto M.D., Ordejón P., Scheicher R.H., Rocha A.R. Physical Review Applied; 3 (3, 034003) 2015. 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.3.034003. IF: 0.000

The advent of parallelized automated methods for rapid whole-genome analysis has led to an exponential drop in costs, thus greatly accelerating biomedical research and discovery. Third-generation sequencing techniques, which would utilize the characteristic electrical conductance of the four different nucleotides, could facilitate longer base read lengths and an even lower price per genome. In this work, we propose and apply a quantum-classical hybrid methodology to quantitatively determine the influence of the solvent on the dynamics of DNA and the resulting electron transport properties of a prototypic sequencing device utilizing a graphene nanopore through which the nucleic-acid chain is threaded. Our results show that charge fluctuations in the nucleotides are responsible for characteristic conductance modulations in this system, which can be regarded as a field-effect transistor tuned by the dynamic aqueous environment. © 2015 American Physical Society.

• Quasiparticle spectra of 2H-NbSe2: Two-band superconductivity and the role of tunneling selectivity

Noat Y., Silva-Guillén J.A., Cren T., Cherkez V., Brun C., Pons S., Debontridder F., Roditchev D., Sacks W., Cario L., Ordejón P., García A., Canadell E. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; 92 (13, 134510) 2015. 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.134510. IF: 3.736

We have studied the superconducting state of 2H-NbSe2 by scanning tunneling spectroscopy along two different crystal orientations, the c and the a/b axes. Along the c axis a large gap is dominant in the spectra, while a smaller gap is measured along the a/b axis. We show that these spectra are accurately described by the McMillan model where the small gap is induced through the coupling to the band associated with the large gap. In order to assign the small and large gaps to specific parts of the 2H-NbSe2 Fermi surface, the electronic structure was studied using first-principles calculations. While we cannot exclude the possibility of intrinsic anisotropy of the gaps, we propose that the large gap opens in the Fermi surface cylinders located around the corner K points while the sheets located around Γ are associated with the small gap. An additional component of the Fermi surface, a selenium based pocket, plays an essential role in the tunneling process. The role of the charge density wave occurring in this material is also discussed. Finally, we are able to give a coherent description of the observed characteristics of the tunneling spectra of 2H-NbSe2 as well as the differences with 2H-NbS2 where no charge density wave state is present. Further experimental work, such as high-resolution ARPES, would be very useful to confirm our interpretation. The approach and modeling developed here could also be relevant for other compounds of the dichalcogenide family. © 2015 American Physical Society.

• Tunneling and electronic structure of the two-gap superconductor MgB2

Silva-Guillén J.A., Noat Y., Cren T., Sacks W., Canadell E., Ordejón P. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; 92 (6, 064514) 2015. 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.064514. IF: 3.736

A combined experimental (superconductor-insulator-superconductor tunneling spectra) and theoretical (density functional theory) study of the two-gap superconductor MgB2 is reported. The calculations confirm that the small gap is associated with a π band mostly based on the boron pz orbitals leading to the three-dimensional band component of the Fermi surface. This channel almost completely dominates the tunneling images and spectra for c-axis-oriented samples and not the two-dimensional σ band. The origin of this effect is due to the faster decay of the electronic states associated with the boron px and py orbitals compared to those associated with the boron pz orbitals, together with the symmetry properties of the wave functions. The calculated tunneling channels and partial density of states for each band agree with the values deduced from precise fits of experimental tunneling spectra. The present approach provides a framework for the understanding of tunneling spectra and the nature of superconducting gaps of other multigap superconductors. © 2015 American Physical Society.

### 2014

• Electronic properties of single-layer and multilayer transition metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M = Mo, W and X = S, Se)

Roldán R., Silva-Guillén J.A., López-Sancho M.P., Guinea F., Cappelluti E., Ordejón P. Annalen der Physik; 526 (9-10): 347 - 357. 2014. 10.1002/andp.201400128.

Single- and few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides have recently emerged as a new family of layered crystals with great interest, not only from the fundamental point of view, but also because of their potential application in ultrathin devices. Here the electronic properties of semiconducting MX2, where M = Mo or W and X = S or Se, are reviewed. Based on of density functional theory calculations, which include the effect of spin-orbit interaction, the band structure of single-layer, bilayer and bulk compounds is discussed. The band structure of these compounds is highly sensitive to elastic deformations, and it is reviewed how strain engineering can be used to manipulate and tune the electronic and optical properties of those materials. Further, the effect of disorder and imperfections in the lattice structure and their effect on the optical and transport properties of MX2 is discussed. The superconducting transition in these compounds, which has been observed experimentally, is analyzed, as well as the different mechanisms proposed so far to explain the pairing. Finally, a discussion on the excitonic effects which are present in these systems is included. © 2014 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

• Momentum dependence of spin-orbit interaction effects in single-layer and multi-layer transition metal dichalcogenides

Roldán R., López-Sancho M.P., Guinea F., Cappelluti E., Silva-Guillén J.A., Ordejón P. 2D Materials; 1 (3, 034003) 2014. 10.1088/2053-1583/1/3/034003.

One of the main characteristics of the new family of two-dimensional crystals of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) is the strong spin-orbit interaction, which makes them very promising for future applications in spintronics and valleytronics devices. Here we present a detailed study of the effect of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) on the band structure of single-layer and bulk TMDs, including explicitly the role of the chalcogen orbitals and their hybridization with the transition metal atoms. To this aim, we combine density functional theory (DFT) calculations with a Slater-Koster tight-binding (TB) model. Whereas most of the previous TB models have been restricted to the K and K' points of the Brillouin zone (BZ), here we consider the effect of SOC in the whole BZ, and the results are compared to the band structure obtained by DFT methods. The TB model is used to analyze the effect of SOC in the band structure, considering separately the contributions from the transition metal and the chalcogen atoms. Finally, we present a scenario where, in the case of strong SOC, the spin/orbital/valley entanglement at the minimum of the conduction band at Q can be probed and be of experimental interest in the most common cases of electron-doping reported for this family of compounds. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

### 2013

• Manganese 3×3 and √3×√3-R30 â̂̃ structures and structural phase transition on w-GaN(0001̄) studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and first-principles theory

Chinchore A.V., Wang K., Shi M., Mandru A., Liu Y., Haider M., Smith A.R., Ferrari V., Barral M.A., Ordejón P. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; 87 (16, 165426) 2013. 10.1103/PhysRevB.87.165426.

Manganese deposited on the N-polar face of wurtzite gallium nitride [GaN (0001̄)] results in two unique surface reconstructions, depending on the deposition temperature. At lower temperature (less than 105 â̂̃C), it is found that a metastable 3×3 structure forms. Mild annealing of this Mn 3×3 structure leads to an irreversible phase transition to a different, much more stable √3×√3-R30â̂̃ structure which can withstand high-temperature annealing. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and reflection high-energy electron diffraction data are compared with results from first-principles theoretical calculations. Theory finds a lowest-energy model for the 3×3 structure consisting of Mn trimers bonded to the Ga adlayer atoms but not with N atoms. The lowest-energy model for the more stable √3×√3-R30â̂̃ structure involves Mn atoms substituting for Ga within the Ga adlayer and thus bonding with N atoms. Tersoff-Hamman simulations of the resulting lowest-energy structural models are found to be in very good agreement with the experimental STM images. © 2013 American Physical Society.

• Tight-binding model and direct-gap/indirect-gap transition in single-layer and multilayer MoS2

Cappelluti E., Roldán R., Silva-Guillén J.A., Ordejón P., Guinea F. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; 88 (7, 075409) 2013. 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.075409.

In this paper we present a paradigmatic tight-binding model for single-layer as well as multilayered semiconducting MoS2 and similar transition metal dichalcogenides. We show that the electronic properties of multilayer systems can be reproduced in terms of a tight-binding modeling of the single-layer hopping terms by simply adding the proper interlayer hoppings ruled by the chalcogenide atoms. We show that such a tight-binding model makes it possible to understand and control in a natural way the transition between a direct-gap band structure, in single-layer systems, and an indirect gap in multilayer compounds in terms of a momentum/orbital selective interlayer splitting of the relevant valence and conduction bands. The model represents also a suitable playground to investigate in an analytical way strain and finite-size effects. © 2013 American Physical Society.

### 2012

• Calculation of core level shifts within DFT using pseudopotentials and localized basis sets

García-Gil S., García A., Ordejón P. European Physical Journal B; 85 (7, 239) 2012. 10.1140/epjb/e2012-30334-5.

The calculation of core level shifts can be done in the context of density functional theory (DFT) using different approaches and physical approximations to the photoemission process. The initial state and the SCF approximations are the most commonly used ones. Here, we describe the details of their implementation in the context of DFT using pseudopotentials and localized atomic orbitals as a basis set, and in particular as applied to the Siesta code. We give a full account of the technicalities involved in these calculations, including the details of the ionic pseudopotential generation, basis sets, charge states and reference potential. We test the method by computing the core level shifts of the Si 2p level for a series of molecules and the p(2×2) asymmetric-dimer reconstruction of the Si(001) surface. © EDP Sciences, Societá Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag 2012.

• Carbon nanotubes as substrates for molecular spiropyran-based switches

Malic, E.; Setaro, A.; Bluemmel, P.; Sanz-Navarro, C.F.; Ordejón, P.; Reich, S.; Knorr, A. Journal of Physics Condensed Matter; 24: 394006. 2012. .

• Dielectric screening in extended systems using the self-consistent Sternheimer equation and localized basis sets

Hübener H., Pérez-Osorio M.A., Ordejón P., Giustino F. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; 85 (24, 245125) 2012. 10.1103/PhysRevB.85.245125.

We develop a first-principles computational method for investigating the dielectric screening in extended systems using the self-consistent Sternheimer equation and localized nonorthogonal basis sets. Our approach does not require the explicit calculation of unoccupied electronic states, uses only two-center integrals, and has a theoretical scaling of order O(N3). We demonstrate this method by comparing our calculations for silicon, germanium, diamond, and LiCl with reference plane-wave calculations. We show that accuracy comparable to that of plane-wave calculations can be achieved via a systematic optimization of the basis set. © 2012 American Physical Society.

• Electroresistance effect in ferroelectric tunnel junctions with symmetric electrodes

Bilc D.I., Novaes F.D., Íñiguez J., Ordejón P., Ghosez P. ACS Nano; 6 (2): 1473 - 1478. 2012. 10.1021/nn2043324.

Understanding the effects that govern electronic transport in ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) is of vital importance to improve the efficiency of devices such as ferroelectric memories with nondestructive readout. However, our current knowledge (typically based on simple semiempirical models or first-principles calculations restricted to the limit of zero bias) remains partial, which may hinder the development of more efficient systems. For example, nowadays it is commonly believed that the tunnel electroresistance (TER) effect exploited in such devices mandatorily requires, to be sizable, the use of two different electrodes, with related potential drawbacks concerning retention time, switching, and polarization imprint. In contrast, here we demonstrate at the first-principles level that large TER values of about 200% can be achieved under finite bias in a prototypical FTJ with symmetric electrodes. Our atomistic approach allows us to quantify the contribution of different microscopic mechanisms to the electroresistance, revealing the dominant role of the inverse piezoelectric response of the ferroelectric. On the basis of our analysis, we provide a critical discussion of the semiempirical models traditionally used to describe FTJs. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

• Insulating behavior of an amorphous graphene membrane

Van Tuan D., Kumar A., Roche S., Ortmann F., Thorpe M.F., Ordejon P. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; 86 (12, 121408) 2012. 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.121408.

We investigate the charge transport properties of planar amorphous graphene that is fully topologically disordered, in the form of sp2 threefold coordinated networks consisting of hexagonal rings but also including many pentagons and heptagons distributed in a random fashion. Using the Kubo transport methodology and the Lanczos method, the density of states, mean free paths, and semiclassical conductivities of such amorphous graphene membranes are computed. Despite a large increase in the density of states close to the charge neutrality point, all electronic properties are dramatically degraded, evidencing an Anderson insulating state caused by topological disorder alone. These results are supported by Landauer-Büttiker conductance calculations, which show a localization length as short as 5 nm. © 2012 American Physical Society.

• Performance of local orbital basis sets in the self-consistent Sternheimer method for dielectric matrices of extended systems

Hubene, H.; Perez-Osorio, M.A.; Ordejon, P.; Giustino, F. European Physical Journal B; 85: 321. 2012. .

• Y:BaZrO 3 perovskite compounds I: DFT study on the unprotonated and protonated local structures

Cammarata A., Ordejón P., Emanuele A., Duca D. Chemistry - An Asian Journal; 7 (8): 1827 - 1837. 2012. 10.1002/asia.201100974.

Y-doped BaZrO 3 derivatives were studied by density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the local arrangements of the octahedral sites in Pm${\bar 3}$m cubic frameworks. Single- and double substitution of zirconium by yttrium were considered, including in the presence of a nearby oxygen vacancy. Although the structural symmetry of undoped barium zirconate was not modified after yttrium doping, the presence of yttrium induced several differences in the oxygen sites around it, according to the local geometrical arrangement of yttrium in the host matrix. As an example, the differences between such oxygen sites were shown in the presence of a proton. In this case, different stabilization energies characterized the protonated fragments. Only in those structures, in which two yttrium atoms were neighbors (i.e., formed Y-O-Y moieties), were the relative energy differences between the corresponding proton stable sites in agreement with the order of magnitude of the experimental proton-hopping activation energies. The distribution of such energy differences suggested a grouping of the oxygen atoms into three sets, which had peculiar structural features that weren't easily deducible from their topologies. The existence of proton traps was also discussed on the basis of the energy-difference distributions. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

### 2011

• An efficient implementation of a QM-MM method in SIESTA

Sanz-Navarro C.F., Grima R., García A., Bea E.A., Soba A., Cela J.M., Ordejón P. Theoretical Chemistry Accounts; 128 (4): 825 - 833. 2011. 10.1007/s00214-010-0816-5.

We present the major features of a new implementation of a QM-MM method that uses the DFT code Siesta to treat the quantum mechanical subsystem and the AMBER force field to deal with the classical part. The computation of the electrostatic interaction has been completely revamped to treat periodic boundary conditions exactly, using a real-space grid that encompasses the whole system. Additionally, we present a new parallelization of the Siesta grid operations that provides near-perfect load balancing for all the relevant operations and achieves a much better scalability, which is important for efficient massive QM-MM calculations in which the grid can potentially be very large. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

• Magnetism-dependent transport phenomena in hydrogenated graphene: From spin-splitting to localization effects

Leconte N., Soriano D., Roche S., Ordejon P., Charlier J.-C., Palacios J.J. ACS Nano; 5 (5): 3987 - 3992. 2011. 10.1021/nn200558d.

Spin-dependent transport in hydrogenated two-dimensional graphene is explored theoretically. Adsorbed atomic hydrogen impurities can either induce a local antiferromagnetic, ferromagnetic, or nonmagnetic state depending on their density and relative distribution. To describe the various magnetic possibilities of hydrogenated graphene, a self-consistent Hubbard Hamiltonian, optimized by ab initio calculations, is first solved in the mean field approximation for small graphene cells. Then, an efficient order N Kubo transport methodology is implemented, enabling large scale simulations of functionalized graphene. Depending on the underlying intrinsic magnetic ordering of hydrogen-induced spins, remarkably different transport features are predicted for the same impurity concentration. Indeed, while the disordered nonmagnetic graphene system exhibits a transition from diffusive to localization regimes, the intrinsic ferromagnetic state exhibits unprecedented robustness toward quantum interference, maintaining, for certain resonant energies, a quasiballistic regime up to the micrometer scale. Consequently, low temperature transport measurements could unveil the presence of a magnetic state in weakly hydrogenated graphene. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

• Magnetoresistance and magnetic ordering fingerprints in hydrogenated graphene

Soriano D., Leconte N., Ordejón P., Charlier J.-C., Palacios J.-J., Roche S. Physical Review Letters; 107 (1, 016602) 2011. 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.016602.

Spin-dependent features in the conductivity of graphene, chemically modified by a random distribution of hydrogen adatoms, are explored theoretically. The spin effects are taken into account using a mean-field self-consistent Hubbard model derived from first-principles calculations. A Kubo transport methodology is used to compute the spin-dependent transport fingerprints of weakly hydrogenated graphene-based systems with realistic sizes. Conductivity responses are obtained for paramagnetic, antiferromagnetic, or ferromagnetic macroscopic states, constructed from the mean-field solutions obtained for small graphene supercells. Magnetoresistance signals up to ∼7% are calculated for hydrogen densities around 0.25%. These theoretical results could serve as guidance for experimental observation of induced magnetism in graphene. © 2011 American Physical Society.

• Modulation of surface charge transfer through competing long-range repulsive versus short-range attractive interactions

Fraxedas J., García-Gil S., Monturet S., Lorente N., Fernández-Torrente I., Franke K.J., Pascual J.I., Vollmer A., Blum R.-P., Koch N., Ordejón P. Journal of Physical Chemistry C; 115 (38): 18640 - 18648. 2011. 10.1021/jp2050838.

We report a combined experimental and theoretical study of the modulation of surface charge transfer on the tetrathiafulvalene (TTF)/Au(111) interface as a function of coverage in the submonolayer regime by combining low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy, high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The modulation is induced by the competition between long-range repulsive Coulombic interactions and short-range attractive hydrogen-bonding interactions. The system shows the characteristic pattern evolution, from monomeric stripes at low coverages to two-dimensional islands, with the formation of labyrinths in the crossover. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

• Oxygen surface functionalization of graphene nanoribbons for transport gap engineering

Cresti A., Lopez-Bezanilla A., Ordejón P., Roche S. ACS Nano; 5 (11): 9271 - 9277. 2011. 10.1021/nn203573y.

We numerically investigate the impact of epoxide adsorbates on the transport properties of graphene nanoribbons with width varying from a few nanometers to 15 nm. For the wider ribbons, a scaling analysis of conductance properties is performed for adsorbate density ranging from 0.1% to 0.5%. Oxygen atoms introduce a large electron-hole transport asymmetry with mean free paths changing by up to 1 order of magnitude, depending on the hole or electron nature of charge carriers. The opening of a transport gap on the electron side for GNRs as wide as 15 nm could be further exploited to control current flow and achieve larger ON/OFF ratios, despite the initially small intrinsic energy gap. The effect of the adsorbates in narrow ribbons is also investigated by full ab initio calculations to explore the limit of ultimate downsized systems. In this case, the inhomogeneous distribution of adsorbates and their interplay with the ribbon edge are found to play an important role. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

• Quantum transport in chemically modified two-dimensional graphene: From minimal conductivity to Anderson localization

Leconte N., Lherbier A., Varchon F., Ordejon P., Roche S., Charlier J.-C. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; 84 (23, 235420) 2011. 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.235420.

An efficient computational methodology is used to explore charge transport properties in chemically modified (and randomly disordered) graphene-based materials. The Hamiltonians of various complex forms of graphene are constructed using tight-binding models enriched by first-principles calculations. These atomistic models are further implemented into a real-space order-N Kubo-Greenwood approach, giving access to the main transport length scales (mean free paths, localization lengths) as a function of defect density and charge carrier energy. An extensive investigation is performed for epoxide impurities with specific discussions on both the existence of a minimum semiclassical conductivity and a crossover between weak to strong localization regime. The 2D generalization of the Thouless relationship linking transport length scales is here illustrated based on a realistic disorder model. © 2011 American Physical Society.

• Structural, dynamical, and electronic transport properties of modified DNA duplexes containing size-expanded nucleobases

Blas J.R., Huertas O., Tabares C., Sumpter B.G., Fuentes-Cabrera M., Orozco M., Ordejón P., Luque F.J. Journal of Physical Chemistry A; 115 (41): 11344 - 11354. 2011. 10.1021/jp205122c.

Among the distinct strategies proposed to expand the genetic alphabet, size-expanded nucleobases are promising for the development of modified DNA duplexes with improved biotechnological properties. In particular, duplexes built up by replacing canonical bases with the corresponding benzo-fused counterparts could be valuable as molecular nanowires. In this context, this study reports the results of classical molecular dynamics simulations carried out to examine the structural and dynamical features of size-expanded DNAs, including both hybrid duplexes containing mixed pairs of natural and benzo-fused bases (xDNA) and pure size-expanded (xxDNA) duplexes. Furthermore, the electronic structure of both natural and size-expanded duplexes is examined by means of density functional computations. The results confirm that the structural and flexibility properties of the canonical DNA are globally little affected by the presence of benzo-fused bases. The most relevant differences are found in the enhanced size of the grooves, and the reduction in the twist. However, the analysis also reveals subtle structural effects related to the nature and sequence of benzo-fused bases in the duplex. On the other hand, electronic structure calculations performed for xxDNAs confirm the reduction in the HOMO-LUMO gap predicted from the analysis of the natural bases and their size-expanded counterparts, which suggests that pure size-expanded DNAs can be good conductors. A more complex situation is found for xDNAs, where fluctuations in the electrostatic interaction between base pairs exerts a decisive influence on the modulation of the energy gap. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

### 2010

• Band selection and disentanglement using maximally localized Wannier functions: The cases of Co impurities in bulk copper and the Cu(111) surface

Korytár R., Pruneda M., Junquera J., Ordejón P., Lorente N. Journal of Physics Condensed Matter; 22 (38, 385601) 2010. 10.1088/0953-8984/22/38/385601.

We have adapted the maximally localized Wannier function approach of Souza et al (2002 Phys. Rev. B 65 035109) to the density functional theory based Siesta code (Soler et al 2002 J. Phys.: Condens. Mater. 14 2745) and applied it to the study of Co substitutional impurities in bulk copper as well as to the Cu(111) surface. In the Co impurity case, we have reduced the problem to the Co d-electrons and the Cu sp-band, permitting us to obtain an Anderson-like Hamiltonian from well defined density functional parameters in a fully orthonormal basis set. In order to test the quality of the Wannier approach to surfaces, we have studied the electronic structure of the Cu(111) surface by again transforming the density functional problem into the Wannier representation. An excellent description of the Shockley surface state is attained, permitting us to be confident in the application of this method to future studies of magnetic adsorbates in the presence of an extended surface state. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

• Damaging graphene with ozone treatment: A chemically tunable metal - Insulator transition

Leconte N., Moser J., Ordejón P., Tao H., Lherbier A., Bachtold A., Alsina F., Sotomayor Torres C.M., Charlier J.-C., Roche S. ACS Nano; 4 (7): 4033 - 4038. 2010. 10.1021/nn100537z.

We present a multiscale ab initio study of electronic and transport properties of two-dimensional graphene after epoxide functionalization via ozone treatment. The orbital rehybridization induced by the epoxide groups triggers a strong intervalley scattering and changes dramatically the conduction properties of graphene. By varying the coverage density of epoxide defects from 0.1 to 4%, charge conduction can be tuned from a diffusive to a strongly localized regime, with localization lengths down to a few nanometers long. Experimental results supporting the interpretation as a metal - insulator transition are also provided. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

• Density-wave instability in α- ( BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN) 4 studied by x-ray diffuse scattering and by first-principles calculations

Foury-Leylekian P., Pouget J.-P., Lee Y.-J., Nieminen R.M., Ordejón P., Canadell E. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; 82 (13, 134116) 2010. 10.1103/PhysRevB.82.134116.

α- (BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4 develops a density wave ground state below 8 K whose origin is still debated. Here we report a combined x-ray diffuse scattering and first-principles density functional theory study supporting the charge density wave (CDW) scenario. In particular, we observe a triply incommensurate anharmonic lattice modulation with intralayer wave vector components which coincide within experimental errors to the maximum of the calculated Lindhard response function. A detailed study of the structural aspects of the modulation shows that the CDW instability in α- ( BEDT-TTF) 2 KHg ( SCN) 4 is considerably more involved than those following a standard Peierls mechanism. We thus propose a microscopic mechanism where the CDW instability of the BEDT-TTF layer is triggered by the anion sublattice. Our mechanism also emphasizes the key role of the coupling of the BEDT-TTF and anion layers via the hydrogen bond network to set the global modulation. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

• Electronic transport between graphene layers covalently connected by carbon nanotubes

Novaes F.D., Rurali R., Ordejón P. ACS Nano; 4 (12): 7596 - 7602. 2010. 10.1021/nn102206n.

We present a first-principles study of the electronic transport properties of metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotube (CNT) junctions connecting two graphene layers, for different CNT lengths and link structures. Transport is analyzed in terms of the scattering states originated from the π and π* states of the finite-length CNTs, which couple to the graphene states producing resonances in the transmission curves. We find that, for metallic CNTs, the conductance is nearly independent of the tube length, but changes strongly with the link structure, while the opposite occurs for semiconducting CNTs, where the conductance in the tunneling regime is mainly controlled by the tube length and independent of the link structure. The sizable band offset between graphene and the CNTs yields to considerable effects on the transport properties, which cannot be captured using simple empirical models and highlights the need for a first-principles description. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

• Orbital specific chirality and homochiral self-assembly of achiral molecules induced by charge transfer and spontaneous symmetry breaking

Mugarza A., Lorente N., Ordejón P., Krull C., Stepanow S., Bocquet M.-L., Fraxedas J., Ceballos G., Gambardella P. Physical Review Letters; 105 (11, 115702) 2010. 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.115702.

We study the electronic mechanisms underlying the induction and propagation of chirality in achiral molecules deposited on surfaces. Combined scanning tunneling microscopy and ab initio electronic structure calculations of Cu-phthalocyanines adsorbed on Ag(100) reveal the formation of chiral molecular orbitals in structurally undistorted molecules. This effect shows that chirality can be manifest exclusively at the electronic level due to asymmetric charge transfer between molecules and substrate. Single molecule chirality correlates with attractive van der Waals interactions, leading to the propagation of chirality at the supramolecular level. Ostwald ripening provides an efficient pathway for complete symmetry breaking and self-assembly of homochiral supramolecular layers. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

• Preface: Phys. stat. sol. (c) 7/11-12

Correia, A.; Sáenz, J.J.; Ordejon, P.; Roche, S. Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics; 7: 2593 - 2595. 2010. 10.1002/pssc.201060100.

• Real-time TD-DFT simulations in dye sensitized solar cells: The electronic absorption spectrum of alizarin supported on TiO2 nanoclusters

Sánchez-De-Armas R., Oviedo López J., San-Miguel M.A., Sanz J.F., Ordejón P., Pruneda M. Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation; 6 (9): 2856 - 2865. 2010. 10.1021/ct100289t.

The structural and electronic properties of the alizarin dye supported on TiO2 nanoclusters have been examined by means of time-dependent density-functional (TD-DFT) calculations performed in the time-domain framework. The calculated electronic absorption spectrum of free alizarin shows a first band centered at 2.67 eV that upon adsorption features a red shift by 0.31 eV, in agreement with both experimental and previous theoretical work. This red shift arises from a relative stabilization of the dye LUMO when adsorbed. To analyze the dependence of the electronic properties of the dye-support couple on the size of metal-oxide nanoparticles, different models of (TiO 2)n nanoclusters have been used (with n = 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 15, and 38). As a conclusion, the minimal model is good enough to theoretically reproduce the main feature in the spectrum (i.e., the energy shift of the main band upon binding to TiO2). However, it fails in creating intermediate states which could play a significant role under real experimental conditions (dynamics of the electronic transfer). Indeed, as the size of the nanocluster grows, the dye LUMO moves from the edge to well inside the conduction band (Ti 3d band). On the other hand, to assess the consistency of the time-domain approach in the case of such systems, conventional (frequency-domain) TD-DFT calculations have been carried out. It is found that, as far as the functional and basis set are equivalent, both approaches lead to similar results. While for small systems the standard TD-DFT is better suited, for medium to large sized systems, the real-time TD-DFT becomes competitive and more efficient. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

### 2009

• Optimal strictly localized basis sets for noble metal surfaces

García-Gil S., García A., Lorente N., Ordejón P. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; 79 (7, 075441) 2009. 10.1103/PhysRevB.79.075441.

The properties of the (111) surfaces of Cu, Ag, and Au are evaluated using a first-principles approach with strictly localized basis sets. These surfaces present metallic and extended properties that are a priori difficult to describe with a local-basis approach. We explore methodologies to enhance the basis sets of the surface atoms in order to accurately describe surface properties such as surface energies, surface states, and work functions. In this way, the advantages of local-basis computations (namely, efficiency, optimum size scaling, and a natural description of bonding in real space) can be retained, while keeping the accuracy in the description of the properties of the surface at a very good level. © 2009 The American Physical Society.

• Physica Status Solidi C: Preface

Correia, A.; Sáenz, J.J.; Ordejón, P. Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics; 6: 2093 - 2095. 2009. 10.1002/pssc.200960073.

• Tunneling spectroscopy in core/shell structured Fe/MgO nanospheres

Martínez-Boubeta C., Balcells Li., Monty C., Ordejon P., Martínez B. Applied Physics Letters; 94 (6, 062507) 2009. 10.1063/1.3080657.

We report on tunneling conductance properties of a single Fe island enclosed by an epitaxial MgO shell. The results obtained show clear oscillations in the current-voltage curves that, along with the theoretical modeling, allow determining the electronic density of states of the iron core. Moreover, the correlation of these results with the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity of assemblies of Fe/MgO nanocrystals provides evidence of the Δ1 symmetry-sensitive tunneling across a crystalline magnesia barrier. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

### 2008

• Band bending and quasi-2deg in the metallized β-SiC(001) surface

Rurali R., Wachowicz E., Hyldgaard P., Ordejón P. Physica Status Solidi - Rapid Research Letters; 2 (5): 218 - 220. 2008. 10.1002/pssr.200802166.

We study the mechanism leading to the metallization of the β-SiC(001) Si-rich surface induced by hydrogen adsorption. We analyze the effects of band bending and demonstrate the existence of a quasi-2D electron gas, which originates from the donation of electrons from adsorbed hydrogen to bulk conduction states. We also provide a simple model that captures the main features of the results of first-principles calculations, and uncovers the basic physics of the process. © 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

• The SIESTA method; Developments and applicability

Artacho E., Anglada E., Diéguez O., Gale J.D., García A., Junquera J., Martin R.M., Ordejón P., Pruneda J.M., Sánchez-Portal D., Soler J.M. Journal of Physics Condensed Matter; 20 (6, 064208) 2008. 10.1088/0953-8984/20/6/064208.

Recent developments in and around the SIESTA method of first-principles simulation of condensed matter are described and reviewed, with emphasis on (i) the applicability of the method for large and varied systems, (ii) efficient basis sets for the standards of accuracy of density-functional methods, (iii) new implementations, and (iv) extensions beyond ground-state calculations. © 2008 IOP Publishing Ltd.

### 2007

• GaS and InSe equations of state from single crystal diffraction

J. Pellicer-Porres; E. Machado-Charry; A. Segura; S. Gilliland; E. Canadell; P. Ordejón; A. Polian; P. Munsch; A. Chevy y N. Guignot Physica Status Solidi (B): Basic Research; 2007. .

• Interaction of copper organometallic precursors with barrier layers of Ti, Ta and W and their nitrides: a first-principles molecular dynamics study

E. Machado; M. Kaczmarski; B. Braida; P. Ordejón; D. Garg; J. Norman; H. Cheng Journal of Molecular Modeling; 2007. .

• Resistive and rectifying effects of pulling gold atoms at thiol-gold nanocontacts

R. J. C. Batista; P. Ordejón; H. Chacham; E. Artacho Physical Review B; 2007. .

• The Calculation of Free-Energiesin Semiconductors: Defects, Transitionsand Phase Diagrams

E. R. Hernández; A. Antonelli; L. Colombo; P. Ordejón Topics in Applied Physics; 104: 115 - 140. 2007. .

• Transport measurements under pressure in III¿IV layered semiconductors

A. Segura; D. Errandonea; D. Martínez García; F. J. Manjón; A. Chevy; G. Tobías; P. Ordejón; E. Canadell Physica Status Solidi (B): Basic Research; 244: 162 - 168. 2007. .

### 2006

• Electron transport via local polarons at interface atoms

Berthe, M.; Urbieta, A.; Perdigão, L.; Grandidier, B.; Deresmes, D.; Delerue, C.; Stiévenard, D.; Rurali, R.; Lorente, N.; Magaud, L.; Ordejón, P. Physical Review Letters; 97 2006. 10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.206801.

### 2005

• Self-doped titanium oxide thin films for efficient visible light photocatalysis: An example: Nonylphenol photodegradation

Justicia, I.; Garcia, G.; Vázquez, L.; Santiso, J.; Ordejón, P.; Battiston, G.; Gerbasi, R.; Figueras, A. Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical; 109: 52 - 56. 2005. 10.1016/j.snb.2005.03.021.