Staff directory Guillaume Sauthier

Guillaume Sauthier

Research technician of the Photoemission Spectroscopy Facility
Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS and UPS) Facility



  • Control of lateral composition distribution in graded films of soluble solid systems A1-xBx by partitioned dual-beam pulsed laser deposition

    Sakai J., Roque J.M.C., Vales-Castro P., Padilla-Pantoja J., Sauthier G., Catalan G., Santiso J. Coatings; 10 (6, 540) 2020. 10.3390/COATINGS10060540. IF: 2.436

    Lateral compositionally-graded thin films are powerful media for the observation of phase boundaries aswell as for high-throughputmaterials exploration.We herein propose amethod to prepare epitaxial lateral compositionally-graded films using a dual-beampulsed laser deposition (PLD)method with two targets separated by a partition. Tuning the ambient pressure and the partition-substrate gap makes it possible to control of the gradient length of the deposits at the small sizes (≤ 10 mm) suitable for commercial oxide single crystal substrates. A simple Monte Carlo simulation qualitatively reproduced the characteristic features of the lateral thickness distribution. To demonstrate this method, we prepared (1-x)PbTiO3-xPbZrO3 and (1-x)LaMnO3-xLa0.6Sr0.4MnO3 films with lateral composition gradient widths of 10 and 1 mm, respectively, with the partitioned dual PLD. © 2020 by the authors.

  • Control of Spin-Orbit Torques by Interface Engineering in Topological Insulator Heterostructures

    Bonell F., Goto M., Sauthier G., Sierra J.F., Figueroa A.I., Costache M.V., Miwa S., Suzuki Y., Valenzuela S.O. Nano Letters; 20 (8): 5893 - 5899. 2020. 10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c01850. IF: 11.238

    (Bi1-xSbx)2Te3 topological insulators (TIs) are gathering increasing attention owing to their large charge-to-spin conversion efficiency and the ensuing spin-orbit torques (SOTs) that can be used to manipulate the magnetization of a ferromagnet (FM). The origin of the torques, however, remains elusive, while the implications of hybridized states and the strong material intermixing at the TI/FM interface are essentially unexplored. By combining interface chemical analysis and spin-transfer ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) measurements, we demonstrate that intermixing plays a critical role in the generation of SOTs. By inserting a suitable normal metal spacer, material intermixing is reduced and the TI properties at the interface are largely improved, resulting in strong variations in the nature of the SOTs. A dramatic enhancement of a field-like torque, opposing and surpassing the Oersted-field torque, is observed, which can be attributed to the non-equilibrium spin density in Rashba-split surface bands and to the suppression of spin memory loss. These phenomena can play a relevant role at other interfaces, such as those comprising transition metal dichalcogenides. © 2020 American Chemical Society.

  • Molecular Approach for Engineering Interfacial Interactions in Magnetic/Topological Insulator Heterostructures

    Cuxart M.G., Valbuena M.A., Robles R., Moreno C., Bonell F., Sauthier G., Imaz I., Xu H., Nistor C., Barla A., Gargiani P., Valvidares M., Maspoch D., Gambardella P., Valenzuela S.O., Mugarza A. ACS Nano; 14 (5): 6285 - 6294. 2020. 10.1021/acsnano.0c02498. IF: 14.588

    Controlling interfacial interactions in magnetic/topological insulator heterostructures is a major challenge for the emergence of novel spin-dependent electronic phenomena. As for any rational design of heterostructures that rely on proximity effects, one should ideally retain the overall properties of each component while tuning interactions at the interface. However, in most inorganic interfaces, interactions are too strong, consequently perturbing, and even quenching, both the magnetic moment and the topological surface states at each side of the interface. Here, we show that these properties can be preserved using ligand chemistry to tune the interaction of magnetic ions with the surface states. By depositing Co-based porphyrin and phthalocyanine monolayers on the surface of Bi2Te3 thin films, robust interfaces are formed that preserve undoped topological surface states as well as the pristine magnetic moment of the divalent Co ions. The selected ligands allow us to tune the interfacial hybridization within this weak interaction regime. These results, which are in stark contrast with the observed suppression of the surface state at the first quintuple layer of Bi2Se3 induced by the interaction with Co phthalocyanines, demonstrate the capability of planar metal-organic molecules to span interactions from the strong to the weak limit. © 2020 American Chemical Society.

  • P-Type Ultrawide-Band-Gap Spinel ZnGa2O4: New Perspectives for Energy Electronics

    Chikoidze E., Sartel C., Madaci I., Mohamed H., Vilar C., Ballesteros B., Belarre F., Del Corro E., Vales-Castro P., Sauthier G., Li L., Jennings M., Sallet V., Dumont Y., Pérez-Tomás A. Crystal Growth and Design; 20 (4): 2535 - 2546. 2020. 10.1021/acs.cgd.9b01669. IF: 4.089

    The family of spinel compounds is a large and important class of multifunctional materials of general formulation AB2X4 with many advanced applications in energy and optoelectronic areas such as fuel cells, batteries, catalysis, photonics, spintronics, and thermoelectricity. In this work, it is demonstrated that the ternary ultrawide-band-gap (∼5 eV) spinel zinc gallate (ZnGa2O4) arguably is the native p-type ternary oxide semiconductor with the largest Eg value (in comparison with the recently discovered binary p-type monoclinic β-Ga2O3 oxide). For nominally undoped ZnGa2O4 the high-temperature Hall effect hole concentration was determined to be as large as p = 2 × 1015 cm-3, while hole mobilities were found to be μh = 7-10 cm2/(V s) (in the 680-850 K temperature range). An acceptor-like small Fermi level was further corroborated by X-ray spectroscopy and by density functional theory calculations. Our findings, as an important step toward p-type doping, opens up further perspectives for ultrawide-band-gap bipolar spinel electronics and further promotes ultrawide-band-gap ternary oxides such as ZnGa2O4 to the forefront of the quest of the next generation of semiconductor materials for more efficient energy optoelectronics and power electronics. Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society.


  • Critical Role of Phenyl Substitution and Catalytic Substrate in the Surface-Assisted Polymerization of Dibromobianthracene Derivatives

    Moreno C., Panighel M., Vilas-Varela M., Sauthier G., Tenorio M., Ceballos G., Peña D., Mugarza A. Chemistry of Materials; 31 (2): 331 - 341. 2019. 10.1021/acs.chemmater.8b03094. IF: 10.159

    Understanding the nature and hierarchy of on-surface reactions is a major challenge for designing coordination and covalent nanostructures by means of multistep synthetic routes. In particular, intermediates and final products are hard to predict since the reaction paths and their activation windows depend on the choice of both the molecular precursor design and the substrate. Here, we report a systematic study of the effect of the catalytic metal surface to reveal how a single precursor can give rise to very distinct polymers that range from coordination and covalent nonplanar polymer chains of distinct chirality to atomically precise graphene nanoribbons and nanoporous graphene. Our precursor consists on adding two phenyl substituents to 10,10′-dibromo-9,9′-bianthracene, a well-studied precursor in the on-surface synthesis of graphene nanoribbons. The critical role of the monomer design in the reaction paths is inferred from the fact that the phenyl substitution leads to very distinct products in each one of the studied metallic substrates. © 2018 American Chemical Society.

  • Hollow PdAg-CeO2 heterodimer nanocrystals as highly structured heterogeneous catalysts

    Patarroyo J., Delgado J.A., Merkoçi F., Genç A., Sauthier G., Llorca J., Arbiol J., Bastus N.G., Godard C., Claver C., Puntes V. Scientific Reports; 9 (1, 18776) 2019. 10.1038/s41598-019-55105-x. IF: 4.011

    In the present work, hollow PdAg-CeO2 heterodimer nanocrystals (NCs) were prepared and tested as catalysts for the selective hydrogenation of alkynes. These nanostructures combine for the first time the beneficial effect of alloying Pd with Ag in a single NC hollow domain with the formation of active sites at the interface with the CeO2 counterpart in an additive manner. The PdAg-CeO2 NCs display excellent alkene selectivity for aliphatic alkynes. For the specific case of hydrogenation of internal alkynes such as 4-octyne, very low over-hydrogenation and isomerization products were observed over a full conversion regime, even after prolonged reaction times. These catalytic properties were remarkably superior in comparison to standard catalysts. The promotion of Ag on the moderation of the reactivity of the Pd phase, in combination with the creation of interfacial sites with the CeO2 moiety in the same nanostructure, is pointed as the responsible of such a remarkable catalytic performance. © 2019, The Author(s).

  • Puzzling robust 2D metallic conductivity in undoped β-Ga 2 O 3 thin films

    Chikoidze E., Rogers D.J., Teherani F.H., Rubio C., Sauthier G., Von Bardeleben H.J., Tchelidze T., Ton-That C., Fellous A., Bove P., Sandana E.V., Dumont Y., Perez-Tomas A. Materials Today Physics; 8: 10 - 17. 2019. 10.1016/j.mtphys.2018.11.006. IF: 0.000

    Here, we report the analogy of an extremely stable topological-like ultra-wide bandgap insulator, a solid that is a pure insulator in its bulk but has a metallic conductive surface, presenting a two-dimensional conductive channel at its surface that challenges our current thinking about semiconductor conductivity engineering. Nominally undoped epitaxial β-Ga 2 O 3 thin films without any detectable defect (after a range of state-of-the-art techniques) showed the unexpectedly low resistivity of 3 × 10 −2 Ωcm which was found to be also resistant to high dose proton irradiation (2 MeV, 5 × 10 15 cm −2 dose) and was largely invariant (metallic) over the phenomenal temperature range of 2 K up to 850 K. The unique resilience and stability of the electrical properties under thermal and highly ionizing radiation stressing, combined with the extended transparency range (thanks to the ultra-wide bandgap) and the already known toughness under high electrical field could open up new perspectives for use as expanded spectral range transparent electrodes (e.g., for UV harvesting solar cells or UV LEDs/lasers) and robust Ohmic contacts for use in extreme environments/applications and for novel optoelectronic and power device concepts. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd


  • Characterization of Carbon-Contaminated B4C-Coated Optics after Chemically Selective Cleaning with Low-Pressure RF Plasma

    Moreno Fernández H., Rogler D., Sauthier G., Thomasset M., Dietsch R., Carlino V., Pellegrin E. Scientific Reports; 8 (1, 1293) 2018. 10.1038/s41598-018-19273-6. IF: 4.122

    Boron carbide (B4C) is one of the few materials that is expected to be most resilient with respect to the extremely high brilliance of the photon beam generated by free electron lasers (FELs) and is thus of considerable interest for optical applications in this field. However, as in the case of many other optics operated at light source facilities, B4C-coated optics are subject to ubiquitous carbon contaminations. Carbon contaminations represent a serious issue for the operation of FEL beamlines due to severe reduction of photon flux, beam coherence, creation of destructive interference, and scattering losses. A variety of B4C cleaning technologies were developed at different laboratories with varying success. We present a study regarding the low-pressure RF plasma cleaning of carbon contaminated B4C test samples via inductively coupled O2/Ar, H2/Ar, and pure O2 RF plasma produced following previous studies using the same ibss GV10x downstream plasma source. Results regarding the chemistry, morphology as well as other aspects of the B4C optical coating before and after the plasma cleaning are reported. We conclude that among the above plasma processes only plasma based on pure O2 feedstock gas exhibits the required chemical selectivity for maintaining the integrity of the B4C optical coatings. © 2018 The Author(s).

  • Control of the Polarization of Ferroelectric Capacitors by the Concurrent Action of Light and Adsorbates

    Liu F., Fina I., Sauthier G., Sánchez F., Rappe A.M., Fontcuberta J. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces; 10 (28): 23968 - 23975. 2018. 10.1021/acsami.8b05751. IF: 8.097

    Ferroelectric perovskites hold promise of enhanced photovoltaic efficiency and photocatalytic activity. Consequently, the photoresponse of oxide ferroelectric thin films is an active field of research. In electrode/ferroelectric/electrode devices, internal charge in the ferroelectric, free charge in the electrodes, and buried adsorbates at interfaces combine to screen the ferroelectric polarization and to stabilize the polar state. Under illumination, photoinduced carriers and photodissociated adsorbates may disrupt the screening equilibrium, modifying the switchable polarization and altering its expected benefits. Here, we explore the photoresponse of BaTiO3 thin films in a capacitor geometry, focusing on the effects of visible illumination on the remanent polarization. By combining ferroelectric and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we discover that photoreaction of charge-screening H2O-derived adsorbates at the buried metal-ferroelectric Pt/BaTiO3 interface plays an unexpected pivotal role, enabling a substantial modulation (up to 75%) of the switchable remanent polarization by light. These findings illustrate that the synergy between photochemistry and photovoltaic activity at the surface of a ferroelectric material can be exploited to tune photoferroelectric activity. © 2018 American Chemical Society.


  • Inductively coupled remote plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rPE-CVD) as a versatile route for the deposition of graphene micro- and nanostructures

    Cuxart M.G., Šics I., Goñi A.R., Pach E., Sauthier G., Paradinas M., Foerster M., Aballe L., Fernandez H.M., Carlino V., Pellegrin E. Carbon; 117: 331 - 342. 2017. 10.1016/j.carbon.2017.02.067. IF: 6.337

    Multiple layers of graphene thin films with micro-crystalline orientation and vertical graphene nano-sheets were grown on different substrates (i.e., polycrystalline nickel foil, Ni(111), highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) using a single-step process based on low-pressure remote Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (rPE-CVD). In contrast to previous studies, a novel basic approach to this technique including a new remote inductively coupled RF plasma source has been used to (i) minimize the orientational effect of the plasma electrical fields during the catalyst-free growth of graphene nano-sheets, (ii) warrant for a low graphene defect density via low plasma kinetics, (iii) decouple the dissociation process of the gas from the growth process of graphene on the substrate, (iv) tune the feedstock gas chemistry in view of improving the graphene growth, and (v) reduce the growth temperature as compared to conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD). In order to study the various aspects of the rPE-CVD graphene growth modes and to assess the characteristics of the resulting graphene layers, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, SEM, and STM were used. The results give evidence for the successful performance of this new rPE-CVD plasma deposition source, that can be combined with in situ UHV-based processess for the production of, e. g., hybrid metal ferromagnet/graphene systems. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  • Low-pressure RF remote plasma cleaning of carbon-contaminated B4C-coated optics

    Moreno Fernández H., Thomasset M., Sauthier G., Rogler D., Dietsch R., Barrett R., Carlino V., Pellegrin E. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering; 10236 ( 102360E) 2017. 10.1117/12.2269374. IF: 0.000

    Boron carbide (B4C)-due to its exceptional mechanical properties-is one of the few existing materials that can withstand the extremely high brilliance of the photon beam from free electron lasers (FELs) and is thus of considerable interest for optical applications in this field. However, as in the case of many other optics operated at modern accelerator-, plasma-, or laser-based light source facilities, B4C-coated optics are subject to ubiquitous carbon contaminations. These contaminations-that are presumably produced via cracking of CHx and CO2 molecules by photoelectrons emitted from the optical components-represent a serious issue for the operation of the pertinent high performance beamlines due to a severe reduction of photon flux and beam coherence, not necessarily restricted to the photon energy range of the carbon K-edge. Thus, a variety of B4C cleaning technologies have been developed at different laboratories with varying success [1]. Here, we present a study regarding the low-pressure RF plasma cleaning of a series of carbon-contaminated B4C test samples via an inductively coupled O2/Ar and Ar/H2 remote RF plasma produced using the IBSS GV10x plasma source following previous studies using the same RF plasma source [2, 3]. Results regarding the chemistry, morphology as well as other aspects of the B4C optical coatings and surfaces before and after the plasma cleaning process are reported. © COPYRIGHT SPIE. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.