Staff directory Junda Zhang



  • Hot-Carrier Cooling in High-Quality Graphene Is Intrinsically Limited by Optical Phonons

    Pogna E.A.A., Jia X., Principi A., Block A., Banszerus L., Zhang J., Liu X., Sohier T., Forti S., Soundarapandian K., Terrés B., Mehew J.D., Trovatello C., Coletti C., Koppens F.H.L., Bonn M., Wang H.I., Van Hulst N., Verstraete M.J., Peng H., Liu Z., Stampfer C., Cerullo G., Tielrooij K.-J. ACS Nano; 15 (7): 11285 - 11295. 2021. 10.1021/acsnano.0c10864. IF: 15.881

    Many promising optoelectronic devices, such as broadband photodetectors, nonlinear frequency converters, and building blocks for data communication systems, exploit photoexcited charge carriers in graphene. For these systems, it is essential to understand the relaxation dynamics after photoexcitation. These dynamics contain a sub-100 fs thermalization phase, which occurs through carrier-carrier scattering and leads to a carrier distribution with an elevated temperature. This is followed by a picosecond cooling phase, where different phonon systems play a role: graphene acoustic and optical phonons, and substrate phonons. Here, we address the cooling pathway of two technologically relevant systems, both consisting of high-quality graphene with a mobility >10000 cm2 V-1 s-1 and environments that do not efficiently take up electronic heat from graphene: WSe2-encapsulated graphene and suspended graphene. We study the cooling dynamics using ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy at room temperature. Cooling via disorder-assisted acoustic phonon scattering and out-of-plane heat transfer to substrate phonons is relatively inefficient in these systems, suggesting a cooling time of tens of picoseconds. However, we observe much faster cooling, on a time scale of a few picoseconds. We attribute this to an intrinsic cooling mechanism, where carriers in the high-energy tail of the hot-carrier distribution emit optical phonons. This creates a permanent heat sink, as carriers efficiently rethermalize. We develop a macroscopic model that explains the observed dynamics, where cooling is eventually limited by optical-to-acoustic phonon coupling. These fundamental insights will guide the development of graphene-based optoelectronic devices. ©

  • Photoactivable ruthenium-based coordination polymer nanoparticles for light-induced chemotherapy

    Zhang J., Ramu V., Zhou X.-Q., Frias C., Ruiz-Molina D., Bonnet S., Roscini C., Novio F. Nanomaterials; 11 (11, 3089) 2021. 10.3390/nano11113089. IF: 5.076

    Green light photoactive Ru-based coordination polymer nanoparticles (CPNs), with chemical formula [[Ru(biqbpy)]1.5 (bis)](PF6)3 (biqbpy = 6,6′-bis[N-(isoquinolyl)-1-amino]-2,2′-bipyridine; bis = bis(imidazol-1-yl)-hexane), were obtained through polymerization of the trans-[Ru(biqbpy) (dmso)Cl]Cl complex (Complex 1) and bis bridging ligands. The as-synthesized CPNs (50 ± 12 nm di-ameter) showed high colloidal and chemical stability in physiological solutions. The axial bis(imidazole) ligands coordinated to the ruthenium center were photosubstituted by water upon light irradiation in aqueous medium to generate the aqueous substituted and active ruthenium complexes. The UV-Vis spectral variations observed for the suspension upon irradiation corroborated the photoactivation of the CPNs, while High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) of irradiated particles in physiological media allowed for the first time precisely quantifying the amount of photoreleased complex from the polymeric material. In vitro studies with A431 and A549 cancer cell lines revealed an 11-fold increased uptake for the nanoparticles compared to the monomeric complex [Ru(biqbpy)(N-methylimidazole)2 ](PF6)2 (Complex 2). After irradiation (520 nm, 39.3 J/cm2), the CPNs yielded up to a two-fold increase in cytotoxicity compared to the same CPNs kept in the dark, indicating a selective effect by light irradiation. Meanwhile, the absence of1 O2 production from both nanostructured and monomeric prodrugs concluded that light-induced cell death is not caused by a photodynamic effect but rather by photoactivated chemotherapy. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Incorporation of Counter Ions in Organic Molecules: New Strategy in Developing Dopant-Free Hole Transport Materials for Efficient Mixed-Ion Perovskite Solar Cells

    Zhang J., Xu B., Yang L., Mingorance A., Ruan C., Hua Y., Wang L., Vlachopoulos N., Lira-Cantú M., Boschloo G., Hagfeldt A., Sun L., Johansson E.M.J. Advanced Energy Materials; 7 (14) 2017. 10.1002/aenm.201602736. IF: 16.721

    Hole transport matertial (HTM) as charge selective layer in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) plays an important role in achieving high power conversion efficiency (PCE). It is known that the dopants and additives are necessary in the HTM in order to improve the hole conductivity of the HTM as well as to obtain high efficiency in PSCs, but the additives can potentially induce device instability and poor device reproducibility. In this work a new strategy to design dopant-free HTMs has been presented by modifying the HTM to include charged moieties which are accompanied with counter ions. The device based on this ionic HTM X44 dos not need any additional doping and the device shows an impressive PCE of 16.2%. Detailed characterization suggests that the incorporated counter ions in X44 can significantly affect the hole conductivity and the homogeneity of the formed HTM thin film. The superior photovoltaic performance for X44 is attributed to both efficient hole transport and effective interfacial hole transfer in the solar cell device. This work provides important insights as regards the future design of new and efficient dopant free HTMs for photovotaics or other optoelectronic applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  • Tri-segmented magnetic nanowires with antiparallel alignment: Suitable platforms for biomedical applications with minimized agglomeration?

    Sort J., Zhang J., Agramunt S., Del-Valle N., Navau C., Estradé S., Peiró F., Pané S., Sánchez A., Pellicer E., Nogues J. 2017 IEEE International Magnetics Conference, INTERMAG 2017; (8007843) 2017. 10.1109/INTMAG.2017.8007843.

    Materials structured in the form of one-dimensional nanoarchitectures, such as nanorods and nanowires (NWs), have found widespread applications in several technological areas, such as optoelectronics, magnetism, catalysis, piezo- and thermo-electricity, biosensing, or micro-/nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS), among others. © 2017 IEEE.

  • Voltage-Induced Coercivity Reduction in Nanoporous Alloy Films: A Boost toward Energy-Efficient Magnetic Actuation

    Quintana A., Zhang J., Isarain-Chávez E., Menéndez E., Cuadrado R., Robles R., Baró M.D., Guerrero M., Pané S., Nelson B.J., Müller C.M., Ordejón P., Nogués J., Pellicer E., Sort J. Advanced Functional Materials; 27 (32, 1701904) 2017. 10.1002/adfm.201701904. IF: 12.124

    Magnetic data storage and magnetically actuated devices are conventionally controlled by magnetic fields generated using electric currents. This involves significant power dissipation by Joule heating effect. To optimize energy efficiency, manipulation of magnetic information with lower magnetic fields (i.e., lower electric currents) is desirable. This can be accomplished by reducing the coercivity of the actuated material. Here, a drastic reduction of coercivity is observed at room temperature in thick (≈600 nm), nanoporous, electrodeposited Cu–Ni films by simply subjecting them to the action of an electric field. The effect is due to voltage-induced changes in the magnetic anisotropy. The large surface-area-to-volume ratio and the ultranarrow pore walls of the system allow the whole film, and not only the topmost surface, to effectively contribute to the observed magnetoelectric effect. This waives the stringent “ultrathin-film requirement” from previous studies, where small voltage-driven coercivity variations were reported. This observation expands the already wide range of applications of nanoporous materials (hitherto in areas like energy storage or catalysis) and it opens new paradigms in the fields of spintronics, computation, and magnetic actuation in general. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim


  • Modeling the collective magnetic behavior of highly-packed arrays of multi-segmented nanowires

    Agramunt-Puig S., Del-Valle N., Pellicer E., Zhang J., Nogués J., Navau C., Sanchez A., Sort J. New Journal of Physics; 18 (1, 013026) 2016. 10.1088/1367-2630/18/1/013026. IF: 3.570

    A powerful model to evaluate the collective magnetic response of large arrays of segmented nanowires comprising two magnetic segments of dissimilar coercivity separated by a non-magnetic spacer is introduced. The model captures the essential aspects of the underlying physics in these systems while being at the same time computationally tractable for relatively large arrays. The minimum lateral and vertical distances rendering densely packed weakly-interacting nanowires and segments are calculated for optimizing their performance in applications like magnetic sensors or recording media. The obtained results are appealing for the design of multifunctional miniaturized devices actuated by external magnetic fields, whose successful implementation relies on achieving a delicate balance between two opposing technological demands: the need for an ultra-high density of nanowires per unit area and the minimization of inter-wire and inter-segment dipolar interactions. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.

  • Tailoring Staircase-like Hysteresis Loops in Electrodeposited Trisegmented Magnetic Nanowires: A Strategy toward Minimization of Interwire Interactions

    Zhang J., Agramunt-Puig S., Del-Valle N., Navau C., Baró M.D., Estradé S., Peiró F., Pané S., Nelson B.J., Sanchez A., Nogués J., Pellicer E., Sort J. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces; 8 (6): 4109 - 4117. 2016. 10.1021/acsami.5b11747. IF: 7.145

    A new strategy to minimize magnetic interactions between nanowires (NWs) dispersed in a fluid is proposed. Such a strategy consists of preparing trisegmented NWs containing two antiparallel ferromagnetic segments with dissimilar coercivity separated by a nonmagnetic spacer. The trisegmented NWs exhibit a staircase-like hysteresis loop with tunable shape that depends on the relative length of the soft- and hard-magnetic segments and the respective values of saturation magnetization. Such NWs are prepared by electrodepositing CoPt/Cu/Ni in a polycarbonate (PC) membrane. The antiparallel alignment is set by applying suitable magnetic fields while the NWs are still embedded in the PC membrane. Analytic calculations are used to demonstrate that the interaction magnetic energy from fully compensated trisegmented NWs with antiparallel alignment is reduced compared to a single-component NW with the same length or the trisegmented NWs with the two ferromagnetic counterparts parallel to each other. The proposed approach is appealing for the use of magnetic NWs in certain biological or catalytic applications where the aggregation of NWs is detrimental for optimized performance. © 2016 American Chemical Society.